2018 Vol. 37, No. 10

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Protection of marine species diversity in China
2018, 37(10): 1-3. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1292-3
Morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny of Cyanothece sp. (Cyanobacteriaceae: Cyanophyceae) isolated from the eastern Indian Ocean
ZHANG Xiaodong, YANG Shuang, SUN Jun, WU Chao, WANG Jing, ZHANG Guicheng, DING Changling
2018, 37(10): 4-10. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1297-y
One strain of unicellular greenish algae embedded by mucilage was successfully isolated from equatorial area in the Indian Ocean. Microscopic observation, ultrastructure features and genetic identification confirmed that the strain was closely related to Cyanothece sp., which was a cyanobacteria species with great ecological significance. Cells were solitary with oval or bacilliform shapes. Diameters of this strain were relatively small, ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 μm on average. Ultrastructure of cells was simple. Thylakoids were arranged parietal and keritomized content were observed in the thylakoid region. Various electron-transparent granules with low electron-dense region as well as cyanophycin or glycogen granules-like organelle and carbonxysomes were also observed. For pigment composition, the dominant pigments were chlorophyll a, β-Carotene, Zeaxanthin and an unknown pigment, contributing 23.8%, 26.1%, 14.7% and 15.7% to total pigments respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and nifH gene confirmed that Strain EIO409 was closely related with Cyanothece sp..
The morphological and phylogenetic characterization for the dinoflagellate Margalefidinium fulvescens (=Cochlodinium fulvescens) isolated from the Jiaozhou Bay, China
HU Zhangxi, DENG Yunyan, LI Yuhang, TANG Ying Zhong
2018, 37(10): 11-17. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1295-0
The dinoflagellate genus Margalefidinium has been split from Cochlodinium as a new genus recently and Margalefidinium fulvescens is one of the five Margalefidinium species. Margalefidinium fulvescens is toxic and has been reported from the coastal waters of USA, Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan and Spain. Here we provide the morphological and phylogenetic characterization for an isolate of it from the Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. Our results showed that the vegetative cells were subspherical to ellipsoidal, 34–60 μm in length, and 19–41 μm in width. Both single cell forms and colonies in chains of 2, 4, or 8 cells were observed in cultures, but chain forms with 2 or 4 cells were observed more often in the field samples. The cingulum was rather deep, encircling the cell approximately twice, but the sulcus was rather narrow, surrounding the cell about one turn. The nucleus was spherical and located at the central epicone. The chloroplasts were granular, brownish, and scattered peripherally. An orange pigmented body also appeared in the epicone. The apical groove appeared vase-like as previously described. Under epi-fluorescence microscopy, a pumpkin-like structure was clearly observed, in which cells were embedded. Cells were observed to exit from the structure, which led us to a hypothesis that the structure may provide cells a shelter to avoid predation or to respond to other stresses. The phylogenetic analyses based on partial LSU rDNA sequences indicated that M. fulvescens from the Jiaozhou Bay was grouped with M. fulvescens populations from other origins and closely related to the clade of M. polykrikoides. Our morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses together confirmed the presence of M. fulvescens in China and our monitoring has also observed the species dominant in the dinoflagellate community of the Jiaozhou Bay in the early autumn of 2015, which alerted us to continually monitor this bloom-forming species in the region.
Heterocapsa bohaiensis sp. nov. (Peridiniales: Dinophyceae): a novel marine dinoflagellate from the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea, China
XIAO Jie, SUN Na, ZHANG Yiwen, SUN Ping, LI Yan, PANG Min, LI Ruixiang
2018, 37(10): 18-27. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1296-z
A small armed dinoflagellate bloomed in the aquaculture ponds off the coast of Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea of China, resulting in heavy mortalities of the cultured prawns (Penaeus japonicus) and larvae of Chinese mitten handed crabs (Eriocheir sinensis). The bloom-forming species was successfully isolated, and cellular morphology of the specimen was consequently investigated through light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The small ((14.4±1.6) μm in length) ellipsoid cells show typical Heterocapsa thecal plate arrangement (Po, cp, 5', 3a, 7'', 6c, 5s, 5''', 2''''). The episome is evidently bigger than the hyposome. One to three spherical pyrenoids are located above or beside the large elongated nucleus. The body scale is characterized by a triangle basal plate with one central upright and nine peripheral spines. Above all, Heterocapsa bohaiensis could be distinguished from other Heterocapsa species by the combination of the cell size, morphology, cellular structure and body scale. Sequence analyses of both ITS and LSU regions reveal the significant genetic divergence between H. bohaiensis and other established species in this genus, further supporting novelty of this species. Noticeably, different sample treatment methods resulted in morphological variation of the apical pore complex (APC) of H. bohaiensis, which needs to be taken into account in future study.
The first record of Pavlova pinguis (Pavlovophyceae, Haptophyta) in China seas
ZHANG Xiaodong, YANG Shuang, SUN Jun, QIAO Yanlong, WANG Jing, LIU Haijiao
2018, 37(10): 28-32. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1294-1
One strain of unicellular flagellated yellow-green algae was successfully isolated from the coastal area near Tianjin in the Bohai Sea in May 2015. The strain ranged from round to elongated in shape. Most of the cells possessed active motility, and some cells formed non-motile aggregation. Based on evidences from morphology, ultrastructure and molecular analysis, we identified the strain as Pavlova pinguis which belonged to Pavlovophyceae, Haptophyta. For Pavlovophyceae, only Pavlova viridis (Diacronema viridis) was reported in China seas prior to this study and it played an important role in aquaculture. This is the first record of Pavlova pinguis in Chinese waters.
Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Pleurosira nanjiensis sp. nov., a new marine benthic diatom from the Nanji Islands, China
LI Yuhang, NAGUMO Tamotsu, XU Kuidong
2018, 37(10): 33-39. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1298-x
A new marine benthic diatom, Pleurosira nanjiensis sp. nov., is described from the rocky intertidal zone of the Xiaochaiyu Island of the Nanji Islands in China. Its morphology was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on SSU rRNA and rbcL gene sequences. Pleurosira nanjiensis differs from congeners in possession of a combination of morphological features including the domed valve with broadly lanceolate, elliptical or circular valve outline, two elevated marginal ocelli, two (rarely three) rimportulae, and radiate striae.
Marine green alga Cladophora aokii Yamada and its epiphytes from Yinggehai, Hainan, China: morphological taxonomy, formation and analysis of its environmental adaption
DING Lanping, DAI Yue, HUANG Bingxin, LI Yongmei, LIU Rui, DENG Shaoyang
2018, 37(10): 40-45. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1299-9
Based on specimens collected in Yinggehai, Hainan, China from 2013 to 2016, a stable epiphytic taxon is found on the surface of the individual of marine green alga Cladophora aokii Yamada. According to the morphological characteristics, the taxonomy of Cl. aokii and its epiphytes is carried out. There are some epiphytes attached on Cl. aokii Yamada including Cl. fascicularis (Mertens ex C. Agardh) Kützing, Chaetomorpha pachynema (Montagne) Kützing, Ceramium camouii Dawson, Licmophora abbreviata Agardh, Lyngbya sp. and Chattonella sp.. The formation of the individual of Cl. aokii is dissected and explained, which can help to analyze the adaption in details among this species, its epiphytes and native marine environment. The results reveal the marine macro-epiphytic taxonomy in Hainan, China, and preliminarily explain the adaptive relationship between macroalgae and environment.
Modern planktonic foraminifera from the eastern Indian Ocean
MUNIR Sonia, SUN Jun
2018, 37(10): 46-63. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1300-7
A brief morphometric study of the recent planktonic foraminifera in the eastern Indian Ocean was provided with the taxonomic key to species, synonyms, SEM microphotographs of shells and chamber arrays. By recent classification, currently 20 species representing 13 genera and 6 families (Canderinidae, Heterohelicoidae, Hedbergellidae, Higerigerinoidae, Globigerinoidae, and Globorotaloidae) identified from the planktonic material of the eastern Indian Ocean up to a depth of 200 m. Their distribution in water (0–200 m) also reports on the new range of expansion in the eastern Indian Ocean, with Dentigloborotalia anfracta, Hastigerina pelagica, Streptochilus globigerus, Globigerinella calida, Globigerinella adamsi, Orcadia reidelii, Tenuitella parkerae, Tenuitella compressa, reported for the first time in this study area. In general, only around 50 planktonic species are valid worldwide, more specifically the species, e.g., H. pelagica, G. calida, G. adamsi, S. globigerus, O. riedeli, T. parkerae, T. compressa, which occur in the eastern Indian Ocean to fill the the paucity of the recent regional taxonomic literature and the problematic identification from the eastern Indian Ocean. This work aims to bridge this gap and help scientists, managers, educators and students to identify plankton foraminifers by using species notes and images.
Morphology of four Miliolinella species (Foraminifera, Protozoa) with description of a new species, Miliolinella obesa nov. spec., from the tropical West Pacific Ocean
LEI Yanli, LI Tiegang
2018, 37(10): 64-69. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1301-6
Foraminiferal oozes were sampled from the tropical West Pacific seamount and seabed of deep sea, by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) in December 2014 and March 2016. Using standard morphological method, four Miliolinella species, including Miliolinella obesa, M. circularis, M. suborbicularis and M. subrotunda were described. Among the four species, M. obesa is a new species. It is a large member (about 500 μm in length) of the genus. This species is characterized by having a very stout and transverse broadly circular outline, and its body width is greater than the body length. In addition, its chamber demarcations are obscure from the exterior appearance. Three chambers are unclearly visible on one side and two chambers are visible on the opposite. Finally, we provided very detailed taxonomic microphotographs and the ecological distribution information for each species.
Polyconchoecia commixtus gen. et sp. nov. (Ostracoda: Myodocopa: Halocyprididae) from the South China Sea
DU Feiyan, XIANG Peng, CHEN Ruixiang, WANG Lianggen, WANG Yu, WANG Chunguang, LIN Mao
2018, 37(10): 70-78. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1302-5
Planktonic ostracods are small crustaceans abundant in marine ecosystem worldwide as appreciable part of marine zooplankton. Family Halocyprididae is a large group of halocyprid ostracods, and the tribe Conchoeciini has contained 21 genera previously. We described a further genus with a species Polyconchoecia commixtus gen. et sp. nov. from the middle of South China Sea in this study. The new species can be distinguished from related genera and species in having a unique combination of these characteristics: a lateral gland placed over right asymmetric gland and open near posterior margin; dense edge glands placed along ventral margin of carapace in line; shape of frontal organ; e-seta of first antenna is bare; endopod of second antenna has one small oval hump with central concave on mid-ventral margin, instead of processus mamillaris, exopod 1 has a small disto-dorsal spine, exopod 1 and 2 are fused, exopod 3 and 4 are bare; endopod 1 of mandible has one long ventral seta, endopod 2 has one ventral seta; maxillary endopod 1 has two basal setae; endopod 1 of fifth limb has only one ventral seta; endopod 1 of sixth limb and endopod 2 have no ventral seta. The definite distinctions in locations of major glands are the key characteristics of the new genus.
The first snapshot study on horizontal distribution and identification of five peritrich ciliates (Genus Vorticella Linnaeus and Zoothamnium Bory de St. Vincent) from the eastern Indian Ocean
MUNIR Sonia, SUN Jun
2018, 37(10): 79-85. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1303-4
Epipont peritrich ciliates are one of the most sessilie protists that attached to the substrate of zooplankton communities especially copepods and crustaceans. Peritrich ciliates can be solitary or colonial form found from the coastal zones and embayment around the world. Present research report is the first snapshot study of the peritrich ciliates and the horizontal distribution in open waters from surface to 200 m depth in the eastern Indian Ocean. Recently, five peritrich ciliates, e.g., Vorticella oceanica, Zoothamnium alternans, Z. alrasheidi, Z. pelagicum, and Z. marinum were collected from plankton net tow samples during the cruise from April 10 to May 13, 2014. The characteristics of the peritrich ciliate were determined according to the shape of the zooids, the ciliary structure and the stalks. The morphometric shape, sizes and characters also explained by examination under light/scanning electron microscopy. Vorticella oceanica and Z. pelagicum showed their association with host such as diatom (i.e, Chaetoceros coarctatus) and copepod (Oithona brevicornis) including some individuals around the dinoflagellate species (Ceraitum tripose). The distribution of these sessilid ciliates was dominated by the V. oceanica, Z. pelagicum and Z. marinum at the southeast zone while the large colonies of Z. alrasheidi observed at the Bay of Bengal. This distribution can be influenced by substrate availability like diatom (Ch. coarctatus) and copepods (O. brevicornis).
Morphological studies of six free-living spirotrichean ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) with three new records from the coastal South China Sea
CHEN Xumiao, XU Kuidong
2018, 37(10): 86-90. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1304-3
The living morphology and infraciliature of six spirotrichous ciliates collected from the coastal South China Sea were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. These are Euplotes woodruffi Gaw, 1939, Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Song and Wilbert, 1997, Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013, Protogastrostyla pulchra (Perejaslawzewa, 1886) Gong et al., 2007, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata (Kahl, 1932) Song and Warren, 2000, and Pseudokahliella marina (Foissner et al., 1982) Berger et al., 1985. Among these, Protogastrostyla pulchra, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata and Pseudokahliella marina are reported from the South China Sea for the first time, which manifest obvious differences apart from other Chinese populations. As new contribution, the detailed description of isolates from mangrove habitat of E. woodruffi and H. enigmatica, and aquaculture pond isolate of N. flavicana, are present.
Four first records of trichodinid (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) ectoparasites from cultured molluscs and fishes in China
ZHAN Zifeng, ZENG Hong, LIN Nengfeng, XU Kuidong
2018, 37(10): 91-97. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1305-2
Four species of Trichodina parasitizing the gills of cultured molluscs and fishes in China are described: Trichodina pectenis Stein, 1974 from the scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis; Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958 from the fishes Mugil cephalus and Anguilla bicolor bicolor; Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961 and Trichodina rostrata Kulemina, 1968 from the fish Acrossocheilus fasciatus. The description of T. pectenis presented here first includes both live characters and morphometric data obtained from specimens impregnated using the wet silver nitrate and protargol methods. The other species were revealed by the dry silver nitrate method. Intensities of infestation and comparisons with related species and populations are provided for each of the four.
Taxonomic notes on Hydroidomedusae (Cnidaria) from the South China Sea IV: Family Bougainvilliidae (Anthomedusae)
GUO Donghui, XU Zhenzu, HUANG Jiaqi, LIN Mao, WANG Chunguang
2018, 37(10): 98-103. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1308-z
This study reviews all genera and species belonging to the family Bougainvilliidae from the South China Sea. The Nubiella atentaculata Xu and Huang, 2004 formerly included in the genus Nubiella, now is transferred to a new genus Paranubiella and included in the Bougainvilliidae as Paranubiella atentaculata (Xu and Huang, 2004) n. comb.. Two new species, Paranubiella nanhaiensis Xu, Huang and Guo, sp. nov. and Nubiella apapillaris Xu, Huang and Guo, sp. nov. from the South China Sea are described and illustrated in the present paper. In addition, the key to known genera of family Bougainvilliidae and species of genus Nubiella are described. Other data are briefly summarized to the list of species presented on the family Bougainvilliidae in the South China Sea. The type species were deposited at the Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration.
Taxonomic notes on Hydroidomedusae (Cnidaria) from the South China Sea V: Families Laodiceidae, Lovenellidae, Malagazziidae, and Mitrocomidae (Leptomedusae)
WANG Chunguang, XU Zhenzu, GUO Donghui, HUANG Jiaqi, LIN Mao
2018, 37(10): 104-111. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1309-y
This study reviews all species belonging to the families Laodiceidae, Lovenellidae, Malagazziidae, and Mitrocomidae in the South China Sea. Two new species, Eucheilota carinata sp. nov. and Halopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov., are described and illustrated. One genus, Staurostoma, and two species, Staurostoma sp. and Octophialucium aphrodite (Bigelow, 1928), are first recorded in China seas. The key to all medusa genera and species of Lovenellidae and Malagazziidae are presented. Other data are briefly summarized to the list and distribution of species presented on the family Laodiceidae, Lovenellidae, Malagazziidae and Mitrocomidae in the South China Sea. The type specimens are deposited in the Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, China.
Taxonomic notes on Anthomedusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydroidomedusa) from the south-central South China Sea, with a new genus and four new species
DU Feiyan, WANG Lianggen, XU Zhenzu, HUANG Jiaqi, GUO Donghui
2018, 37(10): 112-118. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1310-5
This study describes and illustrates four new species Laticanna nanhaiensis Xu, Huang and Wang, gen. nov. and sp. nov., Protiaropsis gemmifera Xu, Huang and Du, sp. nov., Merga nanhaiensis Xu, Huang and Guo, sp. nov. and Rhabdoon apiciloculus Xu, Huang and Du, sp. nov. based on specimens from the south-central South China Sea. Additionally, keys to known genera of family Bythotiaridae and species of genera Protiaropsis, Merga, and Rhabdoon are described. All type specimens are deposited in the South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science.
The genus Chiropsoides (Chirodropida: Chiropsalmidae) from the Andaman Sea, Thai waters
2018, 37(10): 119-125. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1311-4
Box jellyfish Chiropsoides buitendijki from the coastal zone along the Andaman Sea, southwestern Thailand are characterized by a box-shaped body with unilateral branched tentacles and lack of interradial furrows. Tentacular banding was first reported in the present study with 1–3–2–3–2–3–2–3–1 patterns (1–major band, 2–thicker minor band and 3–thinner minor band). The DNA sequences of 18 S ribosomal RNA genes indicated that the specimen examined were genetically similar to C. buitendijki that was previously identified from the Nam Bor Bay, Phuket, Thailand, and distinct to the other known taxa in the order Chirodropida. In addition, a significant genetic divergence based on 16S mitochondrial gene was observed within the C. buitendijki samples. This indicates a population genetic differentiation but needs further confirmation.
Mediomastus chinensis sp. nov., a new species of Capitellidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the southeast coast of China
LIN Junhui, WANG Jianjun, ZHENG Fengwu
2018, 37(10): 126-129. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1316-z
Mediomastus is a common genus around the world, and Chinese specimens used to be identified as M. californiensis Hartman. In this study, 118 Mediomastus specimens collected from four localities along the southeast coast of China were examined. They belonged to an unknown species. We treat them as a new species, described herein. The new species is characterized as follows: (1) chaetigers 1–9 biannulate with chaetal fascicles at midsegment, thereafter multiannulate with chaetal fascicles posterior to midsegment; (2) parapodial ridges on posterior abdomen; (3) possession of bilimbate capillary chaetae on chaetigers 1–4; (4) thoracic hooks with long, straight shaft, hood length about 3–5 times width; (5) abdominal hooks shorter, with developed shoulder and distinct constriction, markedly different from those in thorax; (6) unique staining pattern with methyl green. The present study indicated that Mediomastus species inhabiting Chinese waters might be misidentified as M. californiensis, and that Mediomastus chinensis sp. nov. is widely distributed along the southeast coast of China.
A new species of Leodamas Kinberg, 1866 (Polychaeta: Orbiniidae) from the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea
SUN Yue, SUI Jixing, LI Xinzheng
2018, 37(10): 130-135. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1313-2
Based on polychaete specimens collected from coastal areas of China in 1959, a new species of the family Orbiniidae, Leodamas sinensis sp. nov. is described in the present paper. The new species can be distinguished from its cogeners by the combination of following characters: branchiae present from chaetiger 5; each thoracic neuropodial postchaetal lobe possessing broad tori, with a digital to triangular-shaped papilla at its midlength; 4 or 5 vertical rows of uncini and one posterior row of accompany capillaries in thoracic neuropodia; acicula present in both abdominal notopodia and neuropodia, slightly or distinctly projecting. A key to all known species of the genus is provided.
Sabaco sinicus, a new species of Maldanidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Chinese coast waters
WANG Yueyun, LI Xinzheng
2018, 37(10): 136-139. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1314-1
Sabaco sinicus sp. nov. is described based on material collected from Chinese coast. It has been misidentified as Asychis gangeticus Fauvel, 1932 since Uschakov and Wu (1962). Here, we recognized it as a new species based on combination of the following characters: dark-brown pigmentation spots on nuchal grooves and first three chaetigers; glandular pattern on chaetigers 4–6; preanal achaetigerous segments absent; anal plaque trumpet-shaped with a disc-shaped dorsal lobe; notochaetae consisting of geniculate capillaries and fine capillaries with or without spinose spiral bands; neurochaetae presented as a single row of rostrate uncini. Asychis gangeticus differ from the new species in having no pigmentations on body and a triangular dorsal lobe of anal plaque. Distribution region of this species have moved northward significantly from sea area south of Changjiang Estuary since the 1950s.
Two species of Hyalinoecia Malmgren, 1867 (Polychaeta: Onuphidae) from the South China Sea, with the first record of Hyalinoecia papillata from China
WU Xuwen, XU Kuidong
2018, 37(10): 140-144. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1315-0
A taxonomic study of Hyalinoecia species based on the materials deposited in the Marine Biological Museum of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (MBMCAS) yielded two species: Hyalinoecia tubicola (Müller, 1776) and H. papillata Imajima, 1999. Both species were collected from the sandy bottoms in the northern South China Sea. Hyalinoecia tubicola is widely distributed from the coast of Guangdong Province southwards to the Xisha Islands. Hyalinoecia papillata is reported for the first time in the South China Sea. It differs from H. tubicola in having a prolonged, tongue-like prechaetal lobe with papillae along the lateral margins in the first parapodium (vs. auricular prechaetal lobe with smooth margins). The morphological description and illustration of both species are given.
A new record of Auchenoplax Ehlers, 1887 (Polychaeta: Ampharetidae) from the East China Sea
SUI Jixing, LI Xinzheng
2018, 37(10): 145-147. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1312-3
A new record of the ampharetid genus Auchenoplax, A. worsfoldi Jirkov and Leontovich, 2013, is reported and described from the East China Sea. The specimens agree well with the original description of Auchenoplax worsfoldi with two pairs of branchiae, two thoracic uncinigers with enlarged neuropodia and 12 abdominal uncinigerous segments. The present specimens have long and filiform branchiae extending to thoracic chaetiger 9, which was not included in the original description. This is the first record of this species in Chinese waters.
Two new species of free-living nematodes from the East China Sea
2018, 37(10): 148-151. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1317-y
Two new species of free-living marine nematodes of the genera Hopperia and Nemanema are described from the sublittoral sediment of the East China Sea. Hopperia macramphida sp. nov. is characterized by having large amphidial fovea with five turns; arcuate spicules with enlarged proximal end and central internal lamella extending one third of spicule length from proximal end; gubernaculum with bent apophyses, six papilliform precloacal supplements; and conico-cylindrical tail with swollen tip and terminal setae. Nemanema minutum sp. nov. is characterized by relatively smaller body size in the genus; large oval amphidial fovea; conical tail; slender spicules with alae and hooked proximal end; ring-like gubernaculum; and papilliform precloacal supplements with three short setae. An updated dichotomous key is provided for the 17 species of Hopperia.
A new free-living nematode, Actinonema falciforme sp. nov. (Nematoda: Chromadoridae), from the continental shelf of the East China Sea
SHI Benze, YU Tingting, XU Kuidong
2018, 37(10): 152-156. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1318-x
Actinonema falciforme sp. nov. was discovered from the continental-shelf sediments of the East China Sea. It is characterized by six outer labial setae and four cephalic setae in one circle, complex and heterogeneous cuticular ornamentation with lateral differentiation, large and conspicuous amphideal fovea which is transversely oval-shaped, a single anterior testis, two opposed reflexed ovaries, falciform telamon (lateral pieces of gubernaculum), and the lack of spicule and gubernaculum. Within the genus Actinonema, only A. longicaudatum and the new species possess telamon and lack spicule and gubernaculum. Actinonema falciforme sp. nov. can be easily differentiated from A. longicaudatum by its much shorter body length, the peculiar shape of the telamon and a shorter tail.
Two new species of the genus Wieseria (Nematoda: Enoplaida: Oxystominidae) from the Jiaozhou Bay
HUANG Mian, SUN Jing, HUANG Yong
2018, 37(10): 157-160. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1319-9
Two new species of free-living marine nematodes of the genus Wieseria are described from the sublittoral sediment of the Jiaozhou Bay in Qingdao. Wieseria sinica sp. nov. is characterized by having short labial and cephalic setae in a backward direction; oblong amphidial foveas with double contour; arcuate spicules with alea; ring-like guberculum; and clavated tail. Wieseria tenuisa sp. nov. is characterized by its very large “a” value (133.6), long labial setae in a forward direction; spicules with alea and hooked proximal end; rodlike gubernaculums; and relatively longer clavated tail (7.9 a.b.d. long). It differs from Wieseria sinica sp. nov. mainly by the longer labial setae, slightly straight spicules with hooked proximal end, and its thinner body. Amended dichotomous key to male species of Wieseria is provided.
Two new free-living nematode species (Comesomatidae) from the mangrove wetlands in Fujian Province, China
GUO Yuqing, CHANG Yu, YANG Peipei
2018, 37(10): 161-167. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1320-3
Two new free-living marine nematode species from the mangrove wetlands of Fujian Province, China are identified and illustrated. Sabatieria conicoseta sp. nov. is characterized by its short conical somatic setae. There are 12–15 tubular pre-cloacal supplements and 12–15 μm long straight gubernacular apophyses. Dorylaimopsis papilla sp. nov. is characterized by spicules which are 1.5–1.8 a. b. d. long with media cuticularized strip along entire spicules, and have a cephalated proximal end with small hooked. There are 16–18 small papillate pre-cloacal supplements and 37–40 μm long dorso-caudal gubernacular apophyses.
Two new species of free-living nematodes of genus Tripyloides (Nematoda: Enoplida: Tripyloididae) from mangrove wetlands in the Xiamen Bay, China
FU Sujing, ZENG Jiali, ZHOU Xiping, TAN Wenjuan, CAI Lizhe
2018, 37(10): 168-174. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1321-2
Two new species of free living nematodes Tripyloides mangrovensis n. sp. and Tripyloides amoyanus n. sp. of genus Tripyloides de Man, 1886 are described from mangroves of the Tong'an Bay and Haimen Island in the Xiamen Bay, China. The two species are both characterized by six stout outer labial setae, male without preanal papillae, tail conico-cylindrical without swollen terminally. Tripyloides mangrovensis n. sp. can be additionally by its buccal cavity consisting of two parts, amphid circular, distinct proximal conical and distal slender cylindrical portions, 2/3 of the tail cylindrical. Tripyloides amoyanus n. sp. is distinguished by buccal cavity consisting of three parts with small tooth, amphid small, rounded, like a comma-shaped loop, 1/3 of the tail cylindrical, gubernaculum with four denticles.
A new species of Pheronematidae (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Amphidiscosida) from the Northwest Pacific Ocean
GONG Lin, LI Xinzheng
2018, 37(10): 175-179. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1322-1
A new species of the family Pheronematidae is described in this study. Specimens were collected at Yap seamount and Caroline seamount in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Poliopogon distortus sp. nov. contains oval macramphidiscs, three categories of amphidiscs, clavate monaxons and sceptres, making it distinguished from the eight known congeners easily. This is the fourth record of genus Poliopogon from the Northwest Pacific Ocean. We also used a partial sequence of 16S rDNA gene to confirm the family assignment of the new specimen.
The first record of Ophioleila elegans (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from a deep-sea seamount in the Northwest Pacific Ocean
ZHANG Dongsheng, LU Bo, WANG Chunsheng, O'HARA Timothy D
2018, 37(10): 180-184. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1323-0
The rare ophiuroid species, Ophioleila elegans, was collected by the submersible Jiaolong from 1 660 m depth on the Caiwei Guyot located in the Magellan Seamount Chain in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This is the first published record of this species since the types were described from similar habitat off Hawaii. We provide more detailed morphologic characteristics of arm skeleton and a phylogenetic analysis based on CO1 sequences. Both morphology and phylogeny results suggest that the genus Ophioleila is more closely related to Ophiactids than Hemieuryalids.
The first record of Porcellanaster ceruleus (Echinodermata: Porcellanasteridae) in the South China Sea
ZHANG Ruiyan, WANG Xiaogu, ZHOU Yadong, LU Bo, WANG Chunsheng
2018, 37(10): 185-189. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1324-z
Porcellanasteridae is a group of starfish that live in the deep ocean around the world. The type species of this family, Porcellanaster ceruleus Wyville Thomson, 1878, is cosmopolitan as well as polymorphic. The first record of its occurrence in the South China Sea is reported in this paper. One specimen was caught in the South China Sea on June 6, 2015 by trawl and identified to be a P. ceruleus. The morphological characteristics of this specimen are described and detailed pictures are provided. The discovery of this specimen further expands the distribution of P. ceruleus in the Pacific Ocean. The world distribution records of P. ceruleus and its synonymic species are reviewed in this paper.
The paranthurid isopod crustacean Paranthura nigropunctata (Lucas, 1846): first record from the Atlantic coast of Morocco
BELATTMANIA Zahira, CHAOUTI Abdellatif, REANI Abdeltif, MACHADO Margarida, ENGELEN Aschwin H, SERRÃO Ester A, SABOUR Brahim
2018, 37(10): 190-194. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1170-z
The littoral paranthurid isopod crustacean Paranthura nigropunctata (Lucas, 1846) is recorded for the first time from the littoral of El Jadida located on the Atlantic northwest coast of Morocco. Specimens were obtained from the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and the natives Bifurcaria bifurcata and Cystoseira tamariscifolia in January 2015. This new record further confirms a significant southward distribution of P. nigropunctata and contributes to the knowledge of the biogeography of this isopod. Heretofore, the species was only known from the western and eastern Mediterranean and some Atlantic coasts. The present finding is the first of the species from Moroccan Atlantic shores, and suggests that the species may also be present in other coastal localities from Morocco and Africa. Some data on morphology, ecology and spatial distribution of the species are provided.
The first report of the genus Willenstenhelia (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae) from the China seas, with description of a new species
MA Lin, LI Xinzheng
2018, 37(10): 195-201. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1306-1
A new species Willenstenhelia mirabilipes sp. nov. (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciiidae) is described based on specimens collected from the South China Sea. This is also the first report of the genus Willenstenhelia from the China seas. The new species differs from congeners by the combined characters: all somites without spinules on surface except anal somite; third segment of female P4 exopod with two inner setae; female P5 baseoendopodal lobe with four elements and P5 exopod with sharp apical spine; caudal ramus about six times as long as broad.
A new record of Candacia varicans Giesbrecht, 1892 (male) (Crustacea: Copepoda: Candaciidae) from the South China Sea
LIU Zhensheng, SUN Dong, LI Xiaohui
2018, 37(10): 202-204. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1307-0
The male of Candacia varicans Giesbrecht, 1892 from the South China Sea was recorded and described. In general, the male of C. varicans is morphologically similar to those of C. armata and C. curta. However, it is distinguished with them by below several morphological characters: (1) posterolateral corners of the fifth thoracic segment prominently sharp and symmetrical; (2) right side of posterior edge of genital segment with a small backward protuberance; and (3) the dorsal surface of the third segment of the fifth pereiopod with a squama-shaped protuberance.
Report of a chiton in the genus Leptochiton (Lepidopleurida: Lepidopleurina: Leptochitonidae) from the Yap Trench in the West Pacific Ocean
WANG Chunsheng, ZHOU Yadong, JIANG Dan, HAN Jie
2018, 37(10): 205-208. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1327-9
Two chiton specimens were collected from sedimentary habitat by China's manned Jiaolong submersible diving to a depth of 6 754 m in the north of the Yap Trench. This is a new locality record for chiton. Both morphological and molecular data support that the two specimens are the same species belonging to the genus Leptochiton. Morphologically, this species strongly resembles L. vanbellei and L. deforgesi. Phylogenetically, it has a close evolutionary relationship with L. vanbellei, L. deforgesi and L. boucheti. This is the third deepest record for deep-sea chitons so far.
New records of a genus and a species of Neritidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Cycloneritimorpha) from the South China Sea
CHEN Zhiyun, ZHANG Junlong
2018, 37(10): 209-211. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1326-x
A neritid species Vittina pennata (von Born, 1778) is reported for the first time from the South China Sea. This is also the first report of this genus from Chinese waters. The specimen was collected from the Sanya Harbor, Hainan Province, China and deposited in Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Detailed descriptions of its shell feature are presented. Differences between this species, Vittina coromandeliana and Neritina pulligera are compared and discussed.
Four new records of caridean shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the East China Sea and South China Sea
GAN Zhibin, LI Xinzheng
2018, 37(10): 212-217. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1325-y
Four species of caridean shrimps collected from the East China Sea and South China Sea represent new records for the Chinese waters: Lysmata kempi Chace, 1997; Lysmata lipkei Okuno and Fiedler, 2010; Chlorocurtis jactans (Nobili, 1904) and Rhynchocinetes conspiciocellus Okuno and Takeda, 1992. The diagnostic characters and illustrations of these four species are presented, with remarks on their taxonomy. The identification keys of these species from Chinese waters are provided.
Tintinnid diversity in the tropical West Pacific Ocean
LI Haibo, ZHANG Wuchang, ZHAO Yuan, ZHAO Li, DONG Yi, WANG Chaofeng, LIANG Chen, XIAO Tian
2018, 37(10): 218-228. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1148-x
In order to investigate the tintinnid diversity, vertical distribution and latitudinal variation in the tropical West Pacific Ocean, water samples of different depths from surface to 200 m were collected along four transects. Totally 124 tintinnid species in 39 genera were detected. Most species preferred to live in the surface and subsurface waters. High tintinnid species richness, abundance and diversity index mainly occurred at depths slight shallower than the layer of deep chlorophyll maximum. Species richness, abundance and Shannon's diversity index were significant positive correlation with temperature and chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence, but significant negative correlation with salinity and depth. The correlations between most dominant species and environmental factors were not significant. Tintinnid diversity was extremely high in this area, species richness ranged from 25 to 52 at each station, Shannon's diversity indexes were higher than 3 at most sampling positions from surface to 75 m. Proportions of redundant species were high, accounted for 87.90% of species pool and 60.38% of total abundance, indicating high capacity to response to changes in resource composition and predation pressures of tintinnid communities in the tropical West Pacific Ocean.
Systematics, species diversity and new taxa of mesozooplankton in the West Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas: a brief compilation of monographs in China
WANG Yu, HUANG Zongguo, WANG Chunguang, HUANG Jiangshiou, LIU Zhensheng, XU Zhenzu, HUANG Jiaqi, CHEN Ruixiang, LIAN Guangshan, DAI Yanyu, LIN Jinghong, LIN Mao
2018, 37(10): 229-242. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1328-8
Research and protection of biodiversity is generally started with species recognizing guided by achievement of cataloguing and illustration obtained through in situ investigation data accumulation and literature learning. Facing the shortage of taxonomist, it is getting harder to maintain important specimen collections and handle loans. The West Pacific Ocean has been operating as a center of the origin of global marine biodiversity result of the richest species diversity of marine taxa found in these waters. The present work is a compilation and summary of systematics, species diversity and new taxa of mesozooplankton major group known in West Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas (0°–45°N, 105°–152°E) according to 6 203 mesozooplankton samples acquired from 701 stations during 1965 and 2008. A total of 2 657 species belonging to 686 genera and 206 families of 10 mesozooplankton groups have been found through taxonomic identification and document consulting. In details, 697 species from 251 genera of 99 families belong to the Medusozoa, 59 species from 22 genera of 12 families to the Ctenophora, 85 species from 36 genera of 14 families to the pelagic Mollusca (Pteropoda and Heteropoda), 416 species from 91 genera of 8 families to the Ostracoda, 908 species from 156 genera of 51 families to the Copepoda, 202 species from 60 genera of 4 families to the Mysidacea, 56 species from 8 genera of 2 families to the Euphausiacea, 105 species from 23 genera of 8 families to the Decapoda, 48 species from 13 genera of 5 families to the Chaetognatha and 81 species from 26 genera of 5 families to the Tunicata. The dominant species of each group are enumerated. Moreover, 2 new species of Medusozoa, Tubulariidae, Ectopleura, 1 new species of Medusozoa, Protiaridae, Halitiarella, 1 new genus and 1 new species of Medusozoa, Corymorphidae are established. An amount of 806 species are expanded with an increase of 43.5% on the basis of 1 852 species recorded before 2008, including 1.4% increase from tropical sea around equator, 4.0% from the frigid water in high latitude region, and 3.0% of bathypelagic-associated waters. The authors also summarized future prospects into five major areas in marine mesozooplankton research in China. Such information of qualitative phyletic classification could be of high relevance to studies on biodiversity and biogeography of marine mesozooplankton, especially for monographs contributed to make an overall and systematic conclusion on the species of marine life in China after 2008.