2020 Vol. 39, No. 5

2020-5 Contents
2020, (5): 1-2.
Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
On residual velocities in sigma coordinates in narrow tidal channels
Peng Cheng
2020, 39(5): 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1579-z
In shallow coastal regions where water surface fluctuations are non-negligible compared to the mean water depth, the use of sigma coordinates allows the calculation of residual velocity around the mean water surface level. Theoretical analysis and generic numerical experiments were conducted to understand the physical meaning of the residual velocities at sigma layers in breadth-averaged tidal channels. For shallow water waves, the sigma layers coincide with the water wave surfaces within the water column such that the Stokes velocity and its vertical and horizontal components can be expressed in discrete forms using the sigma velocity. The residual velocity at a sigma layer is the sum of the Eulerian velocity and the vertical component of the Stokes velocity at the mean depth of the sigma layer and, therefore, can be referred to as a semi-Lagrangian residual velocity. Because the vertical component of the Stokes velocity is one order of magnitude smaller than the horizontal component, the sigma residual velocity approximates the Eulerian residual velocity. The residual transport velocity at a sigma layer is the sum of the sigma residual velocity and the horizontal component of the Stokes velocity and approximates the Lagrangian residual velocity in magnitude and direction, but the two residual velocities are not conceptually the same.
Using a skillful statistical model to predict September sea ice covering Arctic shipping routes
Sha Li, Muyin Wang, Wenyu Huang, Shiming Xu, Bin Wang, Yuqi Bai
2020, 39(5): 11-25. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1595-z
The rapid decrease in Arctic sea ice cover and thickness not only has a linkage with extreme weather in the mid-latitudes but also brings more opportunities for Arctic shipping routes and polar resource exploration, both of which motivate us to further understand causes of sea-ice variations and to obtain more accurate estimates of sea-ice cover in the future. Here, a novel data-driven method, the causal effect networks algorithm, is applied to identify the direct precursors of September sea-ice extent covering the Northern Sea Route and Transpolar Sea Route at different lead times so that statistical models can be constructed for sea-ice prediction. The whole study area was also divided into two parts: the northern region covered by multiyear ice and the southern region covered by seasonal ice. The forecast models of September sea-ice extent in the whole study area (TSIE) and southern region (SSIE) at lead times of 1–4 months can explain over 65% and 79% of the variances, respectively, but the forecast skill of sea-ice extent in the northern region (NSIE) is limited at a lead time of 1 month. At lead times of 1–4 months, local sea-ice concentration and sea-ice thickness have a larger influence on September TSIE and SSIE than other teleconnection factors. When the lead time is more than 4 months, the surface meridional wind anomaly from northern Europe in the preceding autumn or early winter is dominant for September TSIE variations but is comparable to thermodynamic factors for NSIE and SSIE. We suggest that this study provides a complementary approach for predicting regional sea ice and is helpful in evaluating and improving climate models.
A comparison of the strength and position variability of the Kuroshio Extension SST front
Peilong Yu, Lifeng Zhang, Mingyang Liu, Quanjia Zhong, Yongchui Zhang, Xin Li
2020, 39(5): 26-34. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1567-3
This study compares the seasonal and interannual-to-decadal variability in the strength and position of the Kuroshio Extension front (KEF) using high-resolution satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) data. Results show that the KEF strength has an obvious seasonal variation that is similar at different longitudes, with a stronger (weaker) KEF during the cold (warm) season. However, the seasonal variation in the KEF position is relatively weak and varies with longitude. In contrast, the low-frequency variation of the KEF position is more distinct than that of the KEF strength even though they are well correlated. On both seasonal and interannual-to-decadal time scales, the western part of the KEF (142°–144°E) has the greatest variability in strength, while the eastern part of the KEF (149°–155°E) has the greatest variability in position. In addition, the relationships between wind-forced Rossby waves and the low-frequency variability in the KEF strength and position are also discussed by using the statistical analysis methods and a wind-driven hindcast model. A positive (negative) North Pacific Oscillation (NPO)-like atmospheric forcing generates positive (negative) SSH anomalies over the central North Pacific. These oceanic signals then propagate westward as Rossby waves, reaching the KE region about three years later, favoring a strengthened (weakened) and northward (southward)-moving KEF.
A numerical study of Stokes drift and thermal effects on the oceanic mixed layer
Xuewei Li, Dongliang Zhao, Zhongshui Zou
2020, 39(5): 35-45. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1448-9
This study explores the influence of Stokes drift and the thermal effects on the upper ocean bias which occurs in the summer with overestimated sea surface temperature (SST) and shallower mixed layer depth (MLD) using Mellor-Yamada turbulence closure scheme. The upper ocean thermal structures through Princeton ocean model are examined by experiments in the cases of idealized forcing and real observational situation. The results suggest that Stokes drift can generally enhance turbulence kinetic energy and deepen MLD either in summer or in winter. This effect will improve the simulation results in summer, but it will lead to much deeper MLD in winter compared to observational data. It is found that MLD can be correctly simulated by combining Stokes drift and the thermal effects of the cool skin layer and diurnal warm layer on the upper mixing layer. In the case of high shortwave radiation and weak wind speed, which usually occurs in summer, the heat absorbed from sun is blocked in the warm layer and prevented from being transferred downwards. As a result, the thermal effects in summer nearly has no influence on dynamic effect of Stokes drift that leads to deepening MLD. However, when the stratification is weak in winter, the thermal effects will counteract the dynamic effect of Stokes drift through enhancing the strength of stratification and suppress mixing impact. Therefore, the dynamic and thermal effects should be considered simultaneously in order to correctly simulate upper ocean thermal structures in both summer and winter.
Rapid changes in the near-bottom temperature of the bottom aquaculture area around the Zhangzi Island in summer
Xueliang Nan, Hao Wei, Renfu Fan, Wei Yang
2020, 39(5): 46-54. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1605-1
Rapid changes in the near-bottom water temperature are important environmental factors that can significantly affect the growth and development of species in the bottom culture. The object of this research is to investigate the mechanism causing these rapid changes within a bottom culture area near the Zhangzi Island. The hydrographic transects observations in the North Yellow Sea (NYS) suggest that our mooring station is very close to the tidal mixing front. The horizontal advection of the tidal front has induced the observed tidal change of bottom temperature at the mooring station. Analysis of the mooring near-bottom temperature and current measurements show that the angle between the tidal current horizontal advection and the swing of the tidal front is crucial in determining the variation trend of temperature. When the angle equals 90°, the horizontal tidal current advects along the isotherms so the temperature remains the same. When the angle is between 0° and 90°, the seawater moves from deep water to the warmer coastal zone and the temperature decreases. In contrast, the horizontal tidal advection moves the coastal warm water to the mooring station and the water temperature increases when the angle is between 90° and 180°. The amplitude of the temperature change is proportional to the magnitude of the horizontal temperature gradient and the tidal excursion in the direction of the temperature gradient. This study may facilitate the choice of culture area in order to have a good aquaculture production.
Pathways of meridional atmospheric moisture transport in the central Arctic
Daohuan Xu, Ling Du, Jingkai Ma, Huangyuan Shi
2020, 39(5): 55-64. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1598-9
Atmospheric moisture transport plays an important role in latent heat release and hydrologic interactions in the Arctic. In recent years, with the rapid decline in sea ice, this transport has changed. Here, we calculated the vertically integrated atmospheric moisture meridional transport (AMTv) from two global reanalysis datasets, from 1979–2015, and found moisture pathways into the central Arctic. Four stable pathways showed an occurrence frequency greater than 70%, and these pathways exhibited a perennial seasonal pattern in the atmosphere above the Laptev Sea Pathway (LSP), Canadian Arctic Archipelago Pathway (CAAP), both sides of the Greenland plateau. Another seasonal pathway appeared above the east of the Chukchi Sea (CSP) during the melting/freezing months (March to September). Through these pathways, AMTv contributed a total moisture exchange of 60%–80%—averaged over a 75°N circle—and focused on the low troposphere. Transports across the LSP, CSP and CAAP pathways likely create an enclosed moisture route. Meridional moisture fluxes are intensified in the Pacific sector of Arctic (PSA), especially during melting/freezing months. AMTv interannual variabilities are illustrated mainly in the Laptev Sea and the east Greenland pathway. Results indicate that accompanying a tendency for a stronger Beaufort Sea High in this sea level pressure field, AMTv through PSA pathways, switched from output to input, and approximately 960 km3 of equivalent liquid water was transferred into the central Arctic during each decade. The detrended AMTv increment is highly correlated with the rapid decline of old ice areas (correlation coefficient is –0.78) for their synchronous fluctuations in the 1980s and the last decade.
Unstable relationship between spring NAO and summer tropical cyclone genesis frequency over the western North Pacific
Qun Zhou, Wen Chen
2020, 39(5): 65-76. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1509-0
The present study reveals the fact that the relationship between the spring (April–May) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the following summer (June–September) tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency over the western North Pacific (WNP) during the period of 1950–2018 was not stationary. It is shown that the relationship between the two has experienced a pronounced interdecadal shift, being weak and insignificant before yet strong and statistically significant after the early 1980s. Next we compare the spring NAO associated dynamic and thermodynamic conditions, sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, and atmospheric circulation processes between the two subperiods of 1954–1976 and 1996–2018, so as to illucidate the possible mechanism for this interdecadal variation in the NAO-TC connection. During the latter epoch, when the spring NAO was positive, enhanced low-level vorticity, reduced vertical zonal wind shear, intensified vertical velocity and increased middle-level relative humidity were present over the WNP in the summer, which is conducive to the genesis of WNP TCs. When the spring NAO is negative, the dynamic and thermodynamic factors are disadvantageous for the summertime TC formation and development over the WNP. The results of further analysis indicate that the persistence of North Atlantic tri-pole SST anomalies from spring to the subsequent summer induced by the spring NAO plays a fundamental role in the linkage between the spring NAO and summer atmospheric circulation. During the period of 1996–2018, a remarkable eastward propagating wave-train occurred across the northern Eurasian continent, forced by the anomalous SST tri-pole in the North Atlantic. The East Asian jet flow became greatly intensified, and the deep convection in the tropics was further enhanced via the changes of the local Hadley circulation, corresponding to a positive spring NAO. During the former epoch, the spring NAO-induced tri-pole SST anomalies in the North Atlantic were non-existent, and the related atmospheric circulation anomalies were extremely weak, thereby leading to the linkage between spring NAO and WNP TC genesis frequency in the following summer being insignificant.
Typhoon storm surge ensemble forecast based on GPU technique
Qiuxing Liu, Jinrong Jiang, Fujiang Yu, Changkuan Zhang, Jianxi Dong, Xiaojiang Song, Yuzhu Wang
2020, 39(5): 77-86. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1570-8
The accuracy of typhoon forecasts plays an important role in the prediction of storm surges. The uncertainty of a typhoon’s intensity and track means it is necessary to use an ensemble model to predict typhoon storm surges. A hydrodynamic model, which is operational at the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center, is applied to conduct surge simulations for South China coastal areas using the best track data with parametric wind and pressure models. The results agree well with tidal gauge observations. To improve the calculation efficiency, the hydrodynamic model is modified using CUDA Fortran. The calculation results are almost the same as those from the original model, but the calculation time is reduced by more than 99%. A total of 150 typhoon cases are generated by combining 50 typhoon tracks from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts with three possible typhoon intensity forecasts. The surge ensembles are computed by the improved hydrodynamic model. Based on the simulated storm surges for the different typhoon cases, ensemble and probability forecast products can be provided. The mean ensemble results and probability forecast products are shown to agree well with the observed storm surge caused by Typhoon Mangkhut. The improved model is highly suitable for ensemble numerical forecasts, providing better forecast products for decision-making, and can be easily implemented to run on regular workstations.
Effects of islands and downslope seafloors on underwater noise in the northern South China Sea during a typhoon
Hongtao Wen, Ning Wang, Yanming Yang, Hailin Ruan, Dewei Xu
2020, 39(5): 87-95. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1566-4
The correlation of ambient noise with wind speed, and the depth dependence of ambient noise are both investigated, where the ocean noise data were recorded by a vertical line array in the northern South China Sea. It is shown that the correlation coefficients increase with increasing hydrophone depth during typhoon periods when the frequency ≥ 250 Hz, which opposes the generally accepted knowledge that the correlation coefficients of noise level and wind speed decrease with increasing depth during non-typhoon periods. Particularly at frequencies of 250 Hz, 315 Hz and 400 Hz, the correlation coefficients increase by more than 0.05 at depths ranging from 155 m to 875 m. At the three frequencies, the average noise levels also increase with increasing depth during typhoon periods. It is suggested that these differences are attributed to the wind-generated noise in shallow waters and the effect of “downslope enhancement” to sound propagation. During typhoon periods, the surf breaking and surf beat upon the shores and reefs are strengthened, and the source levels are increased. The wind-generated noise in shallow waters interacts with the downslope sea floor, with the noise-depth distribution changed by a “downslope enhancement” effect promoting noise propagation.
Marine Geology
Wave flume experiments on dynamics of the bottom boundary layer in silty seabed
Mingzheng Wen, Yonggang Jia, Zhenhao Wang, Shaotong Zhang, Hongxian Shan
2020, 39(5): 96-104. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1571-7
The objectives of this study are carried out a series of controlled large wave flume experiments using fine-grained sediment from the Huanghe River Delta, exploring the complete sequence of sediment behavior in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) during wave-induced liquefaction. The results show that: (1) The BBL in silty seabed is exposed to a progressive wave, goes through a number of different stages including compaction before liquefaction, sediment liquefaction, and compaction after liquefaction, which determines the range and thickness of BBL. (2) With the introduction of waves, first, the sediment surface has settled by an amount S (S=1–2 cm) in the course of wave loadings with an insufficient accumulation of pore water pressure. And a thin high concentration layer formed the near-bed bottom. (3) Once the liquefaction sets in, the liquefied sediment with an ‘orbital motion’ and the sub-liquefied sediment form a two-layer-sediment region. The range of BBL extends downwards and stopped at a certain depth, subsequently, develops upwards with the compaction process. Meanwhile, re-suspended sediments diffuse to the upper water column. (4) During the dynamics process of the BBL beneath progressive waves, the re-suspended sediment increment ranked as sediment liquefaction > erosion before liquefaction > compaction after liquefaction.
Ocean Engineering
Numerical investigation of solitary wave run-up attenuation by patchy vegetation
Chuyan Zhao, Yan Zhang, Jun Tang, Yongming Shen
2020, 39(5): 105-114. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1572-6
Coastal vegetation is capable of decreasing wave run-up. However, because of regrowth, decay or man-made damage, coastal vegetation is always distributed in patches, and its internal distribution is often non-uniform. This study investigates the effects of patchy vegetation on solitary wave run-up by using a numerical simulation. A numerical model based on fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations is established to simulate the wave propagation on a slope with patchy vegetation. By using the model, the process of solitary wave run-up attenuation due to patchy vegetation is numerically analysed. The numerical results reveal that patchy vegetation can considerably attenuate the wave run-up in an effective manner. In addition, high-density patched vegetation can attenuate the solitary wave run-up more effectively than low-density patched vegetation can. For the same density, patchy vegetation with a uniform distribution has a better attenuation effect on wave run-up compared to that of patchy vegetation with a non-uniform distribution.
Marine Technology
Research on sea surface temperature retrieval by the one-dimensional synthetic aperture microwave radiometer, 1D-SAMR
Weihua Ai, Mengyan Feng, Guanyu Chen, Wen Lu
2020, 39(5): 115-122. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1540-1
Due to the low spatial resolution of sea surface temperature (TS) retrieval by real aperture microwave radiometers, in this study, an iterative retrieval method that minimizes the differences between brightness temperature (TB) measured and modeled was used to retrieve sea surface temperature with a one-dimensional synthetic aperture microwave radiometer, temporarily named 1D-SAMR. Regarding the configuration of the radiometer, an angular resolution of 0.43° was reached by theoretical calculation. Experiments on sea surface temperature retrieval were carried out with ideal parameters; the results show that the main factors affecting the retrieval accuracy of sea surface temperature are the accuracy of radiometer calibration and the precision of auxiliary geophysical parameters. In the case of no auxiliary parameter errors, the greatest error in retrieved sea surface temperature is obtained at low TS scene (i.e., 0.710 6 K for the incidence angle of 35° under the radiometer calibration accuracy of 0.5 K). While errors on auxiliary parameters are assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution, the greatest error on retrieved sea surface temperature was 1.330 5 K at an incidence angle of 65° in poorly known sea surface wind speed (W) (the error on W of 1.0 m/s) over high W scene, for the radiometer calibration accuracy of 0.5 K.
Measurement of the sea surface using a GPS towing-body in Wanshan area
Wanlin Zhai, Jianhua Zhu, Chaofei Ma, Xiaohui Fan, Longhao Yan, He Wang, Chuntao Chen
2020, 39(5): 123-132. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1599-8
Wanshan area has been chosen to be the specified field to calibrate and validate (Cal/Val) the HY-2 altimeter and its follow-on satellites. In March 2018, an experiment has been conducted to determine the sea surface height (SSH) under the HY-2A ground track (Pass No. 203). A GPS towing-body (GPS-TB) was designed to measure the SSH covering an area of about 6 km×28 km wide centered on the HY-2A altimeter satellite ground track. Three GPS reference stations, one tide gauge and a GPS buoy were placed in the research area, in order to process and resolve the kinematic solution and check the precision of the GPS-TB respectively. All the GPS data were calculated by the GAMIT/GLOBK software and TRACK module. The sea surface was determined by the GPS-TB solution and the tide gauge placed on Zhiwan Island. Then the sea surface of this area was interpolated by ArcGIS 10.2 with ordinary Kriging method. The results showed that the precision of the GPS-TB is about 1.10 cm compared with the tide gauge placed nearby, which has an equivalent precision with the GPS buoy. The interpolated sea surface has a bias of –1.5–4.0 cm with standard deviation of 0.2–2.4 cm compared with the checking line. The gradient of the measured sea surface is about 1.62 cm/km along the HY-2 orbit which shows a good agreement compared with the CLS11 mean sea surface (MSS). In the Cal/Val of satellites, the sea surface between the tide gauge/GPS buoy and the footprint of altimeter can be improved by this work.
Acoustic characteristics of cold-seep methane bubble behavior in the water column and its potential environmental impact
Jiangong Wei, Tingting Wu, Xiguang Deng, Zongze Yu, Lifeng Wang
2020, 39(5): 133-144. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1489-0
The amount of methane leaked from deep sea cold seeps is enormous and potentially affects the global warming, ocean acidification and global carbon cycle. It is of great significance to study the methane bubble movement and dissolution process in the water column and its output to the atmosphere. Methane bubbles produce strong acoustic impedance in water bodies, and bubble strings released from deep sea cold seeps are called “gas flares” which expressed as flame-like strong backscatter in the water column. We characterized the morphology and movement of methane bubbles released into the water using multibeam water column data at two cold seeps. The result shows that methane at site I reached 920 m water depth without passing through the top of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ, 850 m), while methane bubbles at site II passed through the top of the GHSZ (597 m) and entered the non-GHSZ (above 550 m). By applying two methods on the multibeam data, the bubble rising velocity in the water column at sites I and II were estimated to be 9.6 cm/s and 24 cm/s, respectively. Bubble velocity is positively associated with water depth which is inferred to be resulted from decrease of bubble size during methane ascending in the water. Combined with numerical simulation, we concluded that formation of gas hydrate shells plays an important role in helping methane bubbles entering the upper water bodies, while other factors, including water depth, bubble velocity, initial kinetic energy and bubble size, also influence the bubble residence time in the water and the possibility of methane entering the atmosphere. We estimate that methane gas flux at these two sites is 0.4×106–87.6×106 mol/a which is extremely small compared to the total amount of methane in the ocean body, however, methane leakage might exert significant impact on the ocean acidification considering the widespread distributed cold seeps. In addition, although methane entering the atmosphere is not observed, further research is still needed to understand its potential impact on increasing methane concentration in the surface seawater and gas-water interface methane exchange rate, which consequently increase the greenhouse effect.
A new scattering similarity based metric for ship detection in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar image
Haitao Lang, Yunhong Tao, Lihui Niu, Hongji Shi
2020, 39(5): 145-150. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1563-7
A new paradigm for ship detection in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (Pol-SAR) image is presented. We firstly utilize the scattering similarity parameters to investigate the differences of scattering mechanism between ships and sea clutter. Based on these differences, we propose a novel ship detection metric, denoted as the scattering similarity based metric (SSM), to conduct ship detection task. The distribution model of SSM metric is investigated and modeled by kernel density estimation (KDE). Based on the statistical distribution, an adaptive constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection scheme is implemented. We compare the proposed SSM with two classic polarimetric metrics, i.e., the polarimetric cross-entropy (PCE) and the reflection symmetry metric (RSM). The experimental results conducted on C-band RADARSAT-2 Pol-SAR data demonstrate the feasibility and advantage of the proposed SSM metric both in sea clutter modeling and in ship detection.
Marine Information Science
Study on characteristics of internal solitary waves in the Malacca Strait based on Sentinel-1 and GF-3 satellite SAR data
Jing Ning, Lina Sun, Haiji Cui, Kexiao Lu, Jing Wang
2020, 39(5): 151-156. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1604-2
The study of the characteristics of internal solitary waves happened in the Malacca Strait is an urgent problem for submarine, ship navigation and marine engineering. Based on SAR remote sensing data obtained from the high spatial resolution Sentinel-1 and GF-3, the internal solitary wave characteristics of the Malacca Strait are investigated. By use of 20 Sentinel-1 SAR images from June 2015 to December 2016 and 24 GF-3 images from April 2018 to March 2019, the spatial distribution characteristics of internal solitary wave s are statistically analyzed. It is found that the internal solitary waves are usually in the form of wave packets and single solitary waves, and the maximum crest length of the leading wave can reach 39 km. The amplitude and group velocity of internal solitary wave s can be calculated by the inversion model of high-order nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation, and the calculated amplitude of the internal solitary wave s and the propagation group velocity of the wave packets range from 4.7 m to 23.9 m and 0.12 m/s to 0.40 m/s, respectively. The range of phase velocity of single internal solitary waves obtained by KdV equation is 0.26 m/s to 0.60 m/s. In general, the amplitude and the velocity of internal solitary wave s in Malacca strait are related to the topography.
Sea-water-level prediction via combined wavelet decomposition, neuro-fuzzy and neural networks using SLA and wind information
Bao Wang, Bin Wang, Wenzhou Wu, Changbai Xi, Jiechen Wang
2020, 39(5): 157-167. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1569-1
Sea-water-level (SWL) prediction significantly impacts human lives and maritime activities in coastal regions, particularly at offshore locations with shallow water levels. Long-term SWL forecasts, which are conventionally obtained via harmonic analysis, become ineffective when nonperiodic meteorological events predominate. Artificial intelligence combined with other data-processing methods can effectively forecast highly nonlinear and nonstationary inflow patterns by recognizing historical relationships between input and output. These techniques are considerably useful in time-series data predictions. This paper reports the development of a hybrid model to realize accurate multihour SWL forecasting by combining an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with wavelet decomposition while using sea-level anomaly (SLA) and wind-shear-velocity components as inputs. Numerous wavelet-ANFIS (WANFIS) models have been tested using different inputs to assess their applicability as alternatives to the artificial neural network (ANN), wavelet ANN (WANN), and ANFIS models. Different error definitions have been used to evaluate results, which indicate that integrated wavelet-decomposition and ANFIS models improve the accuracy of SWL prediction and that the inputs of SLA and wind-shear velocity exhibit superior prediction capability compared to conventional SWL-only models.
News and Views
Recent and imminent calving events do little to impair Amery ice shelf’s stability
Teng Li, Yan Liu, Xiao Cheng
2020, 39(5): 168-170. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1600-6