Home > 2015, 34(4) > Characteristics of porosity and permeability layer of fossil Halimeda reef mineral rock of Miocene in the Xisha Islands and its genetic model

Citation: XU Hong, ZHU Yurui, EBERLI G. P., LUO Wei, ZHAO Xinwei, CAI Ying, LIU Xinyu, YAN Guijing, ZHANG Bolin, WEI Kai and CUI Ruyong, . Characteristics of porosity and permeability layer of fossil Halimeda reef mineral rock of Miocene in the Xisha Islands and its genetic model. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2015, 34(4): 74-83. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0638-3

2015, 34(4): 74-83. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0638-3

Characteristics of porosity and permeability layer of fossil Halimeda reef mineral rock of Miocene in the Xisha Islands and its genetic model

1.  Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environment Geology, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Qingdao 266071, China,Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China,Comparative Sedimentology Laboratory, University of Miami, Miami 33149, USA,Zhanjiang Branch of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) Limited, Zhanjiang 524057, China,China University of Geosciences, Beijing100083, China,Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environment Geology, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Qingdao 266071, China,Zhanjiang Branch of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) Limited, Zhanjiang 524057, China,Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environment Geology, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Qingdao 266071, China,Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environment Geology, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Qingdao 266071, China,Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environment Geology, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Qingdao 266071, China and Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environment Geology, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Qingdao 266071, China

Received Date: 2014-06-21
Accepted Date: 2014-09-30

Halimeda is one of the major reef-building algas in the middle Miocene of Xisha, and one of the significant reefbuilding algas in the algal reef oil and gas field of the South China Sea. However, there have been few reports regarding the characteristics of mineral rocks, reservoir porosity and permeability layers, and sedimentationdiagenetic- evolution of fossil Halimeda systems. The present paper briefly introduces the relevant studies on chlorophyta Halimeda and the research status of oil and gas exploration. Through the 1 043 m core of the Xichen- 1 well, we studied the characteristics of the mineral rocks and porosity and permeability of the middle Miocene Halimeda of the Yongle Atoll, identified and described the segments of fossil Halimeda, and pointed out that most of the segment slides are vertical sections in ovular, irregular or long strips. The overwhelming majority of these fossil Halimeda found and studied are vertical sections instead of cross sections. In this paper, knowledge regarding the cross sections of fossil Halimeda is reported and proven to be similar with the microscopic characteristics of modern living Halimeda; fossil Halimeda are buried in superposition; it is shown that there are different structures present, including typical bio-segment structure, and due to its feature of coexisting with red alga, tying structure, twining structure and encrusting structure are all present; and finally, it is suggested to classify the fossil Halimeda into segment algal reef dolomites. In addition, all of the studied intervals are moderately dolomitized. Secondary microcrystalline-dolosparite dominates the original aragonite raphide zones, and aphanitic-micrite dolomite plays the leading role in the cortexes and medullas; in the aragonite raphide zones between medulla and cysts, secondary dissolved pores and intercrystalline pores are formed inside the segments, and algal frame holes are formed between segments; therefore, a pore space network system (dissolved pores + intragranular dissolved pores—intercrystalline pores + algal frame holes) is established. Segment Halimeda dolomite has a porosity of 16.2%-46.1%, a permeability of 0.203×10-3-2 641×10-3 μm2, and a throat radius of 23.42-90.43 μm, therefore it is shown to be a good oil and gas reservoir. For the reasons mentioned above, we suggest building the neogene organic reef-modern reef sedimentation-diagenetic-evolution models for the Xisha Islands.

Key words: Xisha Islands , Miocene , fossil Halimeda , segment dolostone , reservoir evolution model

仙掌藻是西沙中新世生物礁主要造礁藻类之一和南海藻礁油气田重要造礁绿藻之一.但是,迄今缺乏化石仙掌藻系统的矿物岩石特征、储层孔渗层特征和沉积成岩演化成因特征研究的报道.本文简述了国内外有关绿藻门仙掌藻相关研究和油气勘探发现研究现状.通过西琛1井104.3 m岩心,研究了永乐环礁中新世化石仙掌藻的矿物岩石和孔渗层特征,鉴定描述了化石仙掌藻节片,指出节片切片绝大多数为纵切面,呈长条状、椭圆状、不规则状,很难获得横切面切片,本文报道了获得的横切面切片研究认识,与现代活体仙掌藻横切面显微特征近似.化石仙掌藻埋藏分布呈叠置状;形成典型生物节片结构,与红藻共生形成节片捆扎、缠绕包裹结构;提出划分化石仙掌藻岩石类型为节片藻礁白云岩.研究井段全部中等程度白云石化,在原文石针晶区域以形成次生微晶-亮晶白云石为主,在皮层、髓部以形成隐晶和淀晶白云石化作用为主;在髓部及孢囊间文石针晶区域形成节片内次生溶孔、晶间孔,节片间形成藻架孔;这些孔隙空间组合形成溶蚀孔+粒内溶蚀孔-晶间孔+藻架孔孔隙网络体系.测得孔隙度16.2%-46.1%,渗透率0.203×10-3-2 641×10-3 μm2;喉道半径(23.42-90.43 μm),属于优良仙掌藻礁油气储层;首次提出建立了西沙群岛新近系生物礁-现代岛礁环境沉积成岩演化成因的模式.

[1]

Cai Feng, Xu Hong, Hao Xianfeng, et al. 1996. Comparative sedimentology of late Tertiary organic reefs in Xisha—northern South China Sea. Acta Sedimentologica Sinca (in Chinese), 14(4): 61-69

[2]

Chen Sizhong, Hu Pingzhong. 1987. The Tertiary reefs in Pearl River Mouth Basin and its oil significance. China Offshore Oil and Gas (in Chinese), 1(1): 3-10

[3]

Fan Jiasong. 1996. Organic Reefs and Oil and Gas in China (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press

[4]

Flugel E. 1988. Halimeda: palaeontological record and palaeoenvironmental significance. Coral Reefs, 6(3-4): 123-130

[5]

Fournier F, Montaggioni L, Borgomano J. 2004. Paleoenvironments and high frequency cyclicity from Cenozoic South East Asian shallow water carbonates: a case study from the Oligo-Miocene buildups of Malampaya (Off shore Palawan, Philippines). Marine and Petroleum Geology, 21(1): 1-21

[6]

Francesca R B, Antonio R, Alessandro V. 2001. Messinian reef-building assemblages of the Salento Peninsula (southern Italy): palaeobathymetric and palaeoclimatic significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 175(1-4): 7-26

[7]

Kooistra W H C F, Calderon M, Hillis L W. 1999. Development of the extant diversity in Halimeda is linked to vicariant events. Hydrobiologia, 398-399(0): 39-45

[8]

He Qixiang, Zhang Mingshu. 1990. Origin of neogene dolomites in Xisha Islands and their significance. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 10(2): 45-56

[9]

Hillis L. 1997. Coralgal reefs from a calcareous green alga perspective and a first carbonate budget. Proc Eighth Int Coral Reef Symp, 1: 761-766

[10]

Hillis L W. 2001. The calcareous reef alga Halimeda (Chlorophyta, Byropsidales): a cretaceous genus that diversified in the cenozoic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 166(1-2): 89-100

[11]

Hu Cheng, Zheng Rongcai, Dai Chaocheng. 2010. Liuhua organic reef and reservoir characteristics of Zhujiang Formation in Pearl River Month Basin. Lithologic Reservoirs (in Chinese), 22(3): 59-65

[12]

Liu Zhili. 1990. Introduction of Fossils Algae. Beijing: Higher Education Press

[13]

Ma Li, Li Tao, Wang Lei. 2011. Sedimentary evolution of freshwater to marine carbonate rock sequence. Journal of Chongqing University of Science and Technology (Natural Sciences Edition) (in Chinese), 13(3): 37-39

[14]

Wannier M. 2009. Carbonate platforms in wedge-top basins: An example from the Gunung Mulu National Park, Northern Sarawak (Malaysia). Marine and Petroleum Geology, 26(2): 177-207

[15]

Marshall J F, Davies P J. 1988. Halimeda bioherms of the northern Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 6(3-4): 139-148

[16]

Scholl P A, Dana S. 2010. Ulmer-Scholl, Carbonate Petrology: Grain, Structure, Pores and Diagenesis. Translated by Yao Genshun. Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1-481

[17]

Sha Qing'an. 1982. Aragonite-skelets of the halimede and its change. Marine Sciences (in Chinese), 1(2): 20-21

[18]

Veron J E N. 1995. Corals in Space and Time: the Biogeography and Evolution of the Scleractinia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 105-120

[19]

Wang Guozhong. 2001. The Coral Reefs Sedimentology of the South China Sea. Beijing: China Ocean Press, 1-313

[20]

Wang Yujing, Gou Yunxian, Zhang Binggao, et al. 1996. Studies of Miocene strata, biota and palaeoenvironment from XichenNo.1 hole in Xisha Islands. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica (in Chinese), 13(3): 215-224

[21]

Webb S D, Rind D H, Lehman S J, et al. 1997. Influence of ocean heat transport on the climate of the last glacial maximum. Nature, 385: 695-699

[22]

Wei Xi, Jia Chengzao, Meng Weigong, et al. 2008. Biogenetic reefs and its petrological characteristics of well Xichen 1, Xisha sea area, China. Geological Bulletin of China (in Chinese), 27(11): 1933-1938

[23]

Wu Qingyu, Mu Xinan, Bao Huiming. 1994. Gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons produced from thermal degradation of two kinds of calcareous algae. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica (in Chinese), 11(1): 109-114

[24]

Wu Xichun, Wang Quanfeng, Chen Sizhong, et al. 2011. Considering controls on development and distribution of reef reservoirs in South China from the hydrocarbon accumulation potential of Tertiary reefs in the world. China Offshore Oil and Gas (in Chinese), 23(4): 218-224

[25]

Wu Xichun, Wang Quanfeng, Li Peihua, et al. 2010. Chalky texture formation and chalky porous reservoir of Liuhua reef-bank complex on the Early Miocene Dongsha platform, South China Sea. Journal of Palaeogeography (in Chinese), 12(4): 451-466

[26]

Xu Hong. 1992. Comparative study of organic reef in oil-gas-bearing basins of China seas and adjacent areas. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 12(4): 41-52

[27]

Xu Hong, Cai Feng, Wang Yujing, et al. 1999a. The reef evolution and the algae reef building in Miocene of Xisha Island. Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 44(13): 1435-1439

[28]

Xu Hong, Sun Jing, Liao Jing, et al. 2012. Bioherm petroleum reservoir types and features in main sedimentary basins of the South China Sea. Journal of Earth Science, 23(6): 828-841

[29]

Xu Hong, Wang Yujing, Cai Feng, et al. 1999b. The Effect of Reef Building of Biological Stratum and Algae in Miocene of Xisha Islands and the Evolutional Characteristics of Organic Reefs (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 1-108

[30]

Xu Hong, Wang Yujing, Gou Yunxian, et al. 2001. The effect of reef building of plant and the genetic mode of the Miocene biohermal in the Xisha Islands. Journal of Earth Science (in Chinese), 20(10): 94-104, 124-127

[31]

Xu Hong, Zhang Jinchuan, Cai Feng. 1994. Study and significance of Miocene biohermal mineral facies in the Xisha Islands. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 14(4): 15-23

[32]

Zhang Mingshu, He Qixiang, Ye Zhijing, et al. 1989. Study on the Sedimentary Geology of Bioherm Carbonate in the Xisha Islands (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press

[33]

Zhu Haoran. 1979. The fossil algae of Shahejie Formation in Paleogene of Binxian in Shandong Province. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica (in Chinese), 18(4): 327-346

[34]

Zhu Yuanzhi, Sha Qing'an, Yuan Lifen, et al. 1997. Quaternary Coral Reef Geology of Yongshu Reef, Nansha Islands. Beijing: Science Press

Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract Views()
  • HTML Views()
Catalog

Figures And Tables

Characteristics of porosity and permeability layer of fossil Halimeda reef mineral rock of Miocene in the Xisha Islands and its genetic model

XU Hong, ZHU Yurui, EBERLI G. P., LUO Wei, ZHAO Xinwei, CAI Ying, LIU Xinyu, YAN Guijing, ZHANG Bolin, WEI Kai and CUI Ruyong,