Home > 2019, 38(8) > Distribution of green algae micro-propagules and their function in the formation of the green tides in the coast of Qinhuangdao, the Bohai Sea, China

Citation: Hongbin Han, Wei Song, Zongling Wang, Dewen Ding, Chao Yuan, Xuelei Zhang, Yan Li. Distribution of green algae micro-propagules and their function in the formation of the green tides in the coast of Qinhuangdao, the Bohai Sea, China. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(8): 72-77. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1278-1

2019, 38(8): 72-77. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1278-1

Distribution of green algae micro-propagules and their function in the formation of the green tides in the coast of Qinhuangdao, the Bohai Sea, China

1.  College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
2.  Key Laboratory of Science and Engineering for Marine Ecology and Environment, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
3.  Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266235, China

Corresponding author: Zongling Wang, wangzl@fio.org.cn

Received Date: 2018-03-06
Web Publishing Date: 2019-08-01

Fund Project: The National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract Nos 2016YFC1402104 and 2016YFC1402106; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41606190; the Shandong Natural Science Foundation under contract No. ZR2016DB22; the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Integrated Monitoring and Applied Technologies for Marine Harmful Algal Blooms, SOA under contract No. MATHAB201806; the Creative Team Project of the Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology under contract No. LMEES-CTSP-2018-3.

Since 2015, a novel green tide has been recurring in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao at the western coast of the Bohai Sea in China, threatening the environment and ecosystem of the Beidaihe seaside holiday resort along the coast. Micro-propagules of the green algae including gametes, spores, micro-germlings and micro-vegetative fragments play an important role in the formation of green tides. They serve as a " seed source” of green macroalgae, and their distributions could reflect and influence the " algae source” of green tides. In this study, monthly surveys in the inshore and offshore areas of the Qinhuangdao coast were conducted from April to September 2016 and in January 2017 to investigate the tempo-spatial distribution patterns and the biomass variations of the green algae micro-propagules. The obtained results show that micro-propagules were mainly distributed in the inshore areas with a significantly decreasing abundance towards offshore areas. Their biomass was highest in July and August, and lowest in winter. The areas that were affected by the green tides showed a remarkably higher abundance of micro-propagules compared to other areas. These micro-propagules could serve as the " seed” source of green tides. Their distribution patterns indicate that the green tide in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao originated locally.

Key words: green tides , micro-propagules , macroalgae , Qinhuangdao , Bohai Sea

[1]

Agrawal S C. 2009. Factors affecting spore germination in algae-review. Folia Microbiologica, 54: 273–302.

[2]

Bold H C, Wynne M J. 1978. Introduction to the Algae: Structure and Reproduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 571–578

[3]

Fan Shiliang, Fu Mingzhu, Wang Zongling, et al. 2015. Temporal variation of green macroalgal assemblage on Porphyra aquaculture rafts in the Subei shoal, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163: 23–28.

[4]

Fang Song, Wang Zongling, Li Yan, et al. 2012. The dynamics of micro-propagules before the Green tide (Ulva prolifera) outbreak in the southern Huanghai Sea and Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary area. Haiyang Xuebao (in Chinese), 34(4): 147–154

[5]

Fong P, Boyer K E, Desmond J S, et al. 1996. Salinity stress, nitrogen competition, and facilitation: what controls seasonal succession of two opportunistic green macroalgae?. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 206(1–2): 203–221.

[6]

Hoffmann A, Santelices B. 1991. Banks of algal microscopic forms: hypotheses on their functioning and comparisons with seed banks. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 79(1): 85–194

[7]

Huo Yuanzi, Han Hongbin, Hua Liang, et al. 2016. Tracing the origin of green macroalgal blooms based on the large scale spatio-temporal distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled mature Ulva vegetative thalli in coastal regions of the Yellow Sea, China. Harmful Algae, 59: 91–99.

[8]

Huo Yuanzi, Hua Liang, Wu Hailong, et al. 2014. Abundance and distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules associated with a green tide in the southern coast of the Yellow Sea. Harmful Algae, 39: 357–364.

[9]

Li Yan, Song Wei, Xiao Jie, et al. 2014. Tempo-spatial distribution and species diversity of green algae micro-propagules in the Yellow Sea during the large-scale green tide development. Harmful Algae, 39: 40–47.

[10]

Li Ruixiang, Wu Xiaowen, Wei Qinsheng, et al. 2009. Growth of Enteromorpha Prolifera under different nutrient conditions. Advances in Marine Science (in Chinese), 27: 21–216

[11]

Liu Dongyan, Keesing J K, He Peimin, et al. 2013. The world’s largest macroalgal bloom in the Yellow Sea, China: formation and implications. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 129: 2–10.

[12]

Liu Feng, Pang Shaojun, Zhao Xiaobo, et al. 2012. Quantitative, molecular and growth analyses of Ulva microscopic propagules in the coastal sediment of Jiangsu province where green tides initially occurred. Marine Environmental Research, 74: 56–63.

[13]

Lotze H K, Worm B, Sommer U. 2001. Strong bottom-up and top-down control of early life stages of macroalgae. Limnology and Oceanography, 46(4): 749–757.

[14]

Nelson T A, Nelson A V, Tjoelker M. 2003. Seasonal patterns in ulvoid algal biomass, productivity, and key environmental factors in the northeast pacific. Botanica Marina, 46: 263–275

[15]

Pang Shaojun, Liu Feng, Shan Tifeng, et al. 2010. Tracking the algal origin of the Ulva bloom in the Yellow Sea by a combination of molecular, morphological and physiological analyses. Marine Environmental Research, 69(4): 207–215.

[16]

Provasoli L. 1963. Growing marine seaweeds. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Seaweed Symposium. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 9–17

[17]

Raffaelli D G, Raven J A, Poole L J. 1998. Ecological impact of green macroalgal blooms. Oceanography and Marine Biology, 125: 37–97

[18]

Santelices B, Hoffmann A J, Aedo D, et al. 1995. A bank of microscopic forms on disturbed boulders and stones in tide pools. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 129: 215–228.

[19]

Song Wei, Jiang Meijie, Wang Zongling, et al. 2018. Source of propagules of the fouling green macroalgae in the Subei Shoal, China. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 37: 102–108

[20]

Song Wei, Li Yan, Fang Song, et al. 2015a. Temporal and spatial distributions of green algae micro-propagules in the coastal waters of the Subei Shoal, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163: 29–35.

[21]

Song Wei, Peng Keqin, Xiao Jie, et al. 2015b. Effects of temperature on the germination of green algae micro-propagules in coastal waters of the Subei Shoal, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163: 63–68.

[22]

Taylor R, Fletcher R L, Raven J A. 2001. Preliminary studies on the growth of selected ‘green tide’ algae in laboratory culture: effects of irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrients on growth rate. Botanica Marina, 44(4): 327–336

[23]

Teichberg M, Fox S E, Olsen Y S, et al. 2010. Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp. Global Change Biology, 16(9): 2624–2637

[24]

Valiela I, Mcclelland J, Hauxwell J, et al. 1997. Macroalgal blooms in shallow estuaries: controls and ecophysiological and ecosystem consequences. Limnology and Oceanography, 42: 1105–1118.

[25]

Wang Zongling, Xiao Jie, Fan Shiliang, et al. 2015. Who made the world’s largest green tide in China?—an integrated study on the initiation and early development of the green tide in Yellow sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 60(4): 1105–1117.

[26]

Worm B, Lotze H K. 2006. Effects of eutrophication, grazing, and algal blooms on rocky shores. Limnology and Oceanography, 51: 569–579.

[27]

Worm B, Lotze H K, Sommer U. 2001. Algal propagule banks modify competition, consumer and resource control on baltic rocky shores. Oecologia, 128(2): 281–293.

[28]

Zhang Xiaowen, Wang Hongxia, Mao Yuze, et al. 2010. Somatic cells serve as a potential propagule bank of Enteromorpha prolifera forming a green tide in the Yellow Sea, China. Journal of Applied Phycology, 22(2): 173–180.

[29]

Zhang Xiaowen, Xu Dong, Mao Yuze, et al. 2011. Settlement of vegetative fragments of Ulva prolifera confirmed as an important seed source for succession of a large-scale green tide bloom. Limnology and Oceanography, 56(1): 233–242.

[1]

Wei SONG, Meijie JIANG, Zongling WANG, Hongping WANG, Xuelei ZHANG, Mingzhu FU. Source of propagules of the fouling green macroalgae in the Subei Shoal, China. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2018, 37(4): 102-108. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1169-5

[2]

Yu YAN, Wei GU, Yingjun XU, Qian LI. The in situ observation of modelled sea ice drift characteristics in the Bohai Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(3): 17-25. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1395-5

[3]

Qiang Wu, Lisha Guan, Zhongyi Li, Xiujuan Shan, Xianshi Jin. Decadal variations in the community status of economically important invertebrates in the Bohai Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(10): 60-66. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1488-1

[4]

Shuai YUAN, Wei GU, Chengyu LIU, Feng XIE. Towards a semi-empirical model of the sea ice thickness based on hyperspectral remote sensing in the Bohai Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 36(1): 80-89. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-0996-0

[5]

Changshui XIA, Jingsong GUO, Guansuo WANG, Zhenhua CHEN, Xiaodi KUANG. The summertime circulation of the Bohai Sea simulated from a high-resolution wave-tide-circulation coupled model. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(1): 32-37. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1145-0

[6]

Dizhi XIE, Shude XU, Qingyang WU, Fang CHEN, Shuqi WANG, Cuihong YOU, Yuanyou LI. Changes of visceral properties and digestive enzymes in the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus fed on different diets. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2018, 37(2): 85-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1165-9

[7]

Zhangliang Wei, Jiahao Mo, Ruiping Huang, Qunju Hu, Chao Long, Dewen Ding, Fangfang Yang, Lijuan Long. Physiological performance of three calcifying green macroalgae Halimeda species in response to altered seawater temperatures. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2020, 39(2): 1-12. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1471-3

[8]

Qian LIU, Xiaohui XIE, Xiaodong SHANG, Guiying CHEN, Hong WANG. Modal structure and propagation of internal tides in the northeastern South China Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(9): 12-23. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1473-1

[9]

Lili XING, Lina SUN, Shilin LIU, Xiaoni LI, Ting MIAO, Libin ZHANG, Hongsheng YANG. Comparison of pigment composition and melanin content among white, light-green, dark-green, and purple morphs of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 36(12): 45-51. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1056-5

[10]

Jiajia ZHENG, Changqing KE, Zhude SHAO. Winter sea ice albedo variations in the Bohai Sea of China. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 36(1): 56-63. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-0993-3

[11]

Guihao LI, Lei SU, Qianqian ZHANG, Xiaoli ZHANG, Jun GONG. Molecular diversity and biogeography of benthic ciliates in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(2): 78-86. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1236-y

[12]

Wu QU, Guolin HONG, Jing ZHAO. Degradation of malachite green dye by Tenacibaculum sp. HMG1 isolated from Pacific deep-sea sediments. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2018, 37(6): 104-111. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1187-3

[13]

Jinlong CHAO, Chengyu LIU, Ying LI, Xia LIN, Yu YAN. Characteristics of the sea ice reflectance spectrum polluted by oil spills based on field experiments in the Bohai Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 36(1): 73-79. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-0995-1

[14]

Jun SONG, Junru GUO, Jing LI, Lin MU, Yulong LIU, Guosong WANG, Yan LI, Huan LI. Definition of water exchange zone between the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and the effect of winter gale on it. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 36(1): 17-25. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-0989-z

[15]

Xiaoyan YI, Yousong HUANG, Yunyun ZHUANG, Hongju CHEN, Feifei YANG, Weimin WANG, Donghui XU, Guangxing LIU, Huan ZHANG. In situ diet of the copepod Calanus sinicus in coastal waters of the South Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 36(6): 68-79. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-0974-6

[16]

Yupeng Ji, Qun Liu, Baochao Liao, Qingqing Zhang, Ya’nan Han. Estimating biological reference points for Largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) fishery in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(10): 20-26. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1343-4

[17]

Quanrui Chen, Jingfeng Fan, Jie Su, Hongxia Ming, Zhihao Sun, Mengfei Li, Xiaohui Zhao, Yantao Wang, Yingxue Zhang, Huizhen Zhang, Yuan Jin, Xiaowan Ma, Bin Wang. Spatial distribution characteristics of bacterial community structure and gene abundance in sediments of the Bohai Sea. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(12): 1-10.

[18]

Yong LI, Xin CHEN, Xingyu JIANG, Jianfen LI, Lizhu TIAN. Numerical simulations and comparative analysis for two types of storm surges in the Bohai Sea using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(9): 35-47. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1383-9

[19]

Jie XIAO, Na SUN, Yiwen ZHANG, Ping SUN, Yan LI, Min PANG, Ruixiang LI. Heterocapsa bohaiensis sp. nov. (Peridiniales: Dinophyceae): a novel marine dinoflagellate from the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea, China. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2018, 37(10): 18-27. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1296-z

[20]

Tao Liu, Guanli Wei, Hailei Kou, Lei Guo. Pore pressure observation: pressure response of probe penetration and tides. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 2019, 38(7): 107-113. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1462-4

Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract Views()
  • HTML Views()
Catalog

Figures And Tables

Distribution of green algae micro-propagules and their function in the formation of the green tides in the coast of Qinhuangdao, the Bohai Sea, China

Hongbin Han, Wei Song, Zongling Wang, Dewen Ding, Chao Yuan, Xuelei Zhang, Yan Li