Mechanisms for the Link between Onset and Duration of Open Water in the Kara Sea

Chunming Dong Hongtao Nie Xiaofan Luo Hao Wei Wei Zhao

Chunming Dong, Hongtao Nie, Xiaofan Luo, Hao Wei, Wei Zhao. Mechanisms for the Link between Onset and Duration of Open Water in the Kara Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1767-5
Citation: Chunming Dong, Hongtao Nie, Xiaofan Luo, Hao Wei, Wei Zhao. Mechanisms for the Link between Onset and Duration of Open Water in the Kara Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1767-5

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1767-5

Mechanisms for the Link between Onset and Duration of Open Water in the Kara Sea

Funds: The National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract No. 2016YFC1401401; National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41630969, 41941013 and 41806225.
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  • Figure  1.  Location and bathymetry of the Kara Sea (the topography data came from the ORCA025 developed for the DRAKKAR project, The study region is bounded by three sections (thick black lines), Kara Gate (KG), Novaya Zemlya-Taymyr Peninsula (NT), and Estuary (ES).

    Figure  2.  Spatial distributions of SIC from May to October from the CDR data set (a–f) and simulation results of NAPA1/4 (g–l), averaged over 1994–2015 in the Kara Sea. The Taylor diagram shows normalized standard deviations (distant from the origin), correlations (azimuth angle), and bias removed RMS differences (Euclidian distance from the reference point) between NAPA 1/4 and the CDR data set (m). The reference point (blue star) applies to all satellite observed values. The red dots represent 5 d averaged time series in each year from 1994 to 2015.

    Figure  3.  Variations in CR based on the climate data record (CDR)data set (a) and NAPA1/4 model (b). The black and red lines in both subfigures denote the Topen (solid) and Tclose (dashed), respectively. The blue lines represent the linear trend of Topen and Tclose based on the CDR.

    Figure  4.  Annual cycle of sea ice growth and decay rate of ice thickness averaged over 1994–2015 based on NAPA1/4. The negative (positive) value indicates the sea ice decay (growth) rate. Lines with the red circle, blue dot and black triangle represent the thermodynamic, dynamic process and the total contributions to ice variation, respectively.

    Figure  5.  Annual cycle average of the sea ice surface melting rate (blue dot), basal melting rate (red circle), and freshwater flux from ice to the ocean (black triangle) in the Kara Sea averaged over 1994–2015 (a). Melting rates from May 3rd to June 2nd (box outlined in gray in a) (b). These variables are calculated from NAPA1/4 (See the guide book available at The negative (positive) value indicates the sea ice melting (formation) rate.

    Figure  6.  Annual cycles of regional mean SST (black dot), the lateral (blue triangle) and vertical (red dot) net heat flux averaged over 1994–2015 based on NAPA1/4. Positive (negative) values denote heat absorption (release).

    Figure  7.  Interannual variations in SIC (blue triangle), Topen (black dot), and accumulated heat flux during the melt period (red dot) based on NAPA1/4 in the Kara Sea.

    Figure  8.  Interannual variations in Tclose (black circle), accumulated heat flux during the melt period (red dot), the open water period (blue triangle) and the heat absorption process (magenta triangle) based on NAPA1/4 in the Kara Sea.

    Figure  9.  Relationship between Topen (black dot) and DOW of the Kara Sea derived from the CDR data set. Scatter diagram of DOW versus Topen, with their linear regression shown by the red line and 95% confidence bounds shown by the black lines (a). The sizes of open circles increase from 1989 to 2019. Detrended time series from 1989 to 2019 (b). The red triangle and blue circle lines denote CDR derived DOW (DOWobs) and predicted DOW (DOWpre), respectively.

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  • 收稿日期:  2020-10-27
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