Denitrification-nitrification process in permeable coastal sediments: An investigation on the effect of salinity and nitrate availability using flow-through reactors

Shan Jiang Mark Kavanagh Juan Severino Pino Ibánhez Carlos Rocha

Shan Jiang, Mark Kavanagh, Juan Severino Pino Ibánhez, Carlos Rocha. Denitrification-nitrification process in permeable coastal sediments: An investigation on the effect of salinity and nitrate availability using flow-through reactors[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1811-5
Citation: Shan Jiang, Mark Kavanagh, Juan Severino Pino Ibánhez, Carlos Rocha. Denitrification-nitrification process in permeable coastal sediments: An investigation on the effect of salinity and nitrate availability using flow-through reactors[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1811-5

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1811-5

Denitrification-nitrification process in permeable coastal sediments: An investigation on the effect of salinity and nitrate availability using flow-through reactors

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41706081 and 41530960; the Scientific Research Foundation of SKLEC under contract No. 2017RCDW04; the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), the EU (FEDER) and the Portuguese Government through project NITROLINKS—NITROgen loading into the Ria Formosa through Coastal Groundwater Discharge (CGD)-Pathways, turnover and LINKS between land and sea in the Coastal Zone under contract No. PTDC/MAR/70247/2006.
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  • Figure  1.  Sketch of the FTR experimental setup. The sketch includes two DO measurements and sample collection points (from the input solution reservoir and the output stream). The figure is based on Jiang et al. (2018a).

    S1.  The predicted functional profiles (different functions levels; Wang et al., 2020) of the sampling sediment in the Dublin Bay. The number indicates the relative abundance for each function (total abundance, 1).

    Figure  2.  Concentrations of DO and DOC at both input reservoir and output stream (dot plot) and benthic reaction rates (bar chart) in the three scenarios simulated: not amended, natural river and seawater (a and d); river water amended with ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ (b and e) and both river and seawater amended with ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ (c and f). Positive rate indicates production while negative rate indicates consumption. “Not” indicates the control treatment; “River” indicates the river spiked treatment; “Both” indicates the treatment where both river water and seawater received ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ amendment. Data represent mean±standard deviation.

    Figure  3.  ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ concentrations at both input reservoir and output stream (dot plot), as well as reaction rates (bar chart) under unamended conditions (a), ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ amended river water (b) and both river and seawater amended with ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ (c). Figures in bottom panel present the δ15N-${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ and the differences in the isotopic composition of nitrate between the input reservoir and the output stream (Δδ15N-${\rm {NO}}_3^- $) under control conditions (d), ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ amended river water (e) and both river and seawater amended with ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ (f).

    Figure  4.  Correlations between ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ reaction rates with DOC reaction rates (a), salinity (b), ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ concentration (c), and δ15N-${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ (d) under unamended (Not), river water amended (River) and both river water and seawater amended (Both) conditions.

    Figure  5.  Concentrations of ${\rm {NH}}_4^+ $ and ${\rm {NO}}_2^- $ at both input reservoir and output stream (dot plot), as well as reaction rates (bar chart) under unamended conditions (a and d), ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ amended river water (b and e) and both river and seawater amended with ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ (c and f). Concentrations of SRP at both input and output members (dot plot) and its reaction rates (bar chart) under unamended condition (g), spiked river (h) and both river and seawater amended with ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $ (i). Data represent mean±standard deviation.

    Figure  6.  Comparison on the relative intensities of the four FDOM components identified through PARAFAC analysis between the input reservoir and the output stream under the three experimental scenarios: a. tyrosine-like FDOM component; b. tryptophan-like FDOM component; c. terrestrial humic-like FDOM; d. marine bacterial humic-like FDOM. The dash line indicates the ratio of 1 (input = output).

    Figure  7.  Sketch for the DIN removal and addition along the salinity gradient coupled with river-sea mixing. It highlights the potential reaction pathways and reaction intensity peaks. SOM, sedimentary organic matter.

    S1.   Mean concentrations of DO, DOC, DIN species and SRP at input solutions in each group

    River spiked283.7275.6267.5251.8237.5230.0
    Both spiked284.7276.4264.9250.2239.4232.0
    River spiked358.9342.0323.8286.9255.1228.4
    Both spiked362.1347.0323.2283.5251.8230.0
    ${\rm {NO}}_3^- $/(μmol·L−1)
    Control 12.5 11.2 9.8 6.7 3.9 2.3
    River spiked 99.8 86.3 72.7 45.6 18.6 2.4
    Both spiked 99.8101.9 98.7 98.1101.2 99.3
    ${\rm {NH}}_4^+ $/(μmol·L−1)
    Control 4.71 4.25 4.02 3.35 2.75 2.41
    River spiked 4.60 4.22 3.98 3.41 2.82 2.49
    Both spiked 4.82 4.19 4.08 3.45 2.89 2.52
    ${\rm {NO}}_2^- $/(μmol·L−1)
    Control 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.40 0.35 0.36
    River spiked 0.40 0.41 0.39 0.35 0.32 0.33
    Both spiked 0.42 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.32 0.31
    Control 1.18 1.01 0.94 0.72 0.46 0.35
    River spiked 1.19 1.02 0.95 0.74 0.48 0.34
    Both spiked 1.18 1.02 0.97 0.71 0.48 0.34
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    Table  1.   Relative frequency of top 5 phyla and classes in the sediment microbiota. At the genus level, five key species were outlined with regard to N production (nitrification) and removal (denitrification) and their frequency was shown

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    Table  2.   Excitation and emission peaks obtained using PARAFFAC for each FDOM component in the present study and relative concentrations of each solute for the input water in river water and seawater. The identification of these FDOM solutes was completed via comparison with a series of publications listed in the table

    SoluteExcitation peak/nmEmission peak/nmRelative concentration/R.U.
    River waterSea water
    Terrestrial humic2554600.24±0.020.05±0.01
    Microbial humic2304300.09±0.010.04±0.01
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