Tracking historical storm records from high-barrier lagoon deposits on the southeastern coast of Hainan Island, China
Abstract: The relationship between storm activity and global warming remains uncertain. To better understand storm–climate relationships, coastal lagoon deposits are increasingly being investigated because they could provide high-resolution storm records long enough to cover past climate changes. However, site-speciﬁc sediment dynamics and high barriers may bias storm reconstructions. Here, we aimed to investigate these factors through the reconstruction of five distinct storm records (XCL-01, XC-03, XC-06, XC-07, XC-08) from different water depths in a lagoon with a high barrier (i.e., Xincun Lagoon of Hainan Island). Sediment cores were characterized using high-resolution grain size and XRF measurements, to identify storm events. These data were coupled with a numerical simulation to obtain bed shear stress data with high-spatial resolution to better understand storm-induced sediment transport mechanisms. 210Pb dating and Pb pollution chronostratigraphic markers indicated that the chronology of the storm deposit sequences of the cores span the period between 117 a and 348 a. The grain size and XRF results indicated numerous, highly variable and short-duration fluctuations, suggesting that storm-induced coarse-grained sediments were deposited at these core sites. The inconsistent storm events recorded in these cores suggest that these sites have different preservation potentials for storm deposits. However, the consistence between storm sediment records and historical documents for core XCL-01 indicates that high-barrier lagoons could provide long-term storm event records with high preservation potential.
Figure 1. Location of Xincun Lagoon on the southeastern coast of Hainan Island (a). Core site and tidal location in the Xincun Lagoon (b). Surface sample location (c). The inset shows the wind direction rose map along Lingshui Coast (date source: The Compile Committee of China Bay Record, 1999). Ps of major storm that impacted Xincun Lagoon since 1950 AD (d).
Figure 10. Conceptual model of mechanisms of coarse-grained sand formation caused by storm impacts within the Xincun Lagoon sequence (Modified from Maio et al., 2016). Conceptualized cross section of the tidal basin showing core locations, beach, and flood delta sands (a). Windblown waves generated by storms further increase the tide level and current speed, resulting in erosion of the flood delta, beach, and shoreface sand. Coarse-grained sand is suspended and transported into the tidal basin it is sorted and deposited on the tidal basin bottom bed (b). increased storm surged water within the tidal basin provides up the conditions for a strong current capable of transporting sand from the flood delta tidal beach down into the tidal basin (c, d).
Date Name Maximum wind/ (m·s–1) Pressure/ hpa Category Maximum tidal water level/ m 1954.05.11 Elsie 35 960 1 2.44 1962.09.21 Carla 35 984 1 – 1971.05.25 Dinah 35 990 1 – 1971.10.09 Elanie 45 975 2 2.60 1973.09.14 Marge 42 975 1 – 1981.06.04 Kelly 45 965 2 2.73 1985.10.21 Dot 40 970 1 – 1989.06.10 Dot 35 970 1 – 1991.07.13 Zeke 40 965 1 – 2000.09.09 Wukong 33 975 1 – 2005.09.26 Damrey 35 970 1 – 2010.07.16 Conson 35 970 1 – Note:“–” means no data
Table 2. Supplementary documented literature of storm events occurring in 1863, 1848, and 1939 CE.
Date Documented description Landfall site 1863 On November 21st in 1863 CE, jufeng moved from east to south, buildings were razed.
On November 27th in 1863 CE, jufeng moved from northwest to southeast, numerous houses were destroyed, thousands of people were drowned by the storm surge, which caused hazards that have never been seen before.
Qiongshan 1848 On November 23rd in 1848 CE, a number of buildings and trees were demolished by extraordinarily strong winds. Dingan 1839 On December 7th–18th in 1839 CE, 6 storms and floods occurred continuously, allcrops were drowned and a large number of people lost their home, which contributed to a famine that led to the death of numerous people. In the next two years (1840 and 1841 CE), corps were destroyed again by frequent floods and drought, famine was the result. Dingan, Wenchang
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