Estimating submarine groundwater discharge at a subtropical river estuary along the Beibu Gulf, China

Xilong Wang Kaijun Su Juan Du Linwei Li Yanling Lao Guizhen Ning Li Bin

Xilong Wang, Kaijun Su, Juan Du, Linwei Li, Yanling Lao, Guizhen Ning, Li Bin. Estimating submarine groundwater discharge at a subtropical river estuary along the Beibu Gulf, China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1862-7
Citation: Xilong Wang, Kaijun Su, Juan Du, Linwei Li, Yanling Lao, Guizhen Ning, Li Bin. Estimating submarine groundwater discharge at a subtropical river estuary along the Beibu Gulf, China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1862-7

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1862-7

Estimating submarine groundwater discharge at a subtropical river estuary along the Beibu Gulf, China

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41906150; the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi under contract No. 2018GXNSFBA281051; the Science and Technology Plan Projects of Guangxi Province under contract Nos Gui Science AD19245147 and Gui Science AB18126098; the Research Fund of Guangxi Education Department under contract No. 2018KY0616; the Research Startup Fund of Beibu Gulf University under contract No. 2018KYQD09.
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  • Figure  1.  Location of Beibu Gulf and the Dafengjiang River (DFJR) facing the Beibu Gulf, in the southern part of China (a); sampling stations in and around the DFJR Estuary in May 2018 (b); the phenomenon of pumping marine sand in the river course (c); and the Chinese white dolphin in the Sanniang Bay (d) shown in b.

    Figure  2.  Monthly precipitation in Qinzhou (the city where the DFJR Estuary is located) and the river flow rate into the DFJR Estuary (a); the behavior of tidal levels and its relationship with the Yellow Sea base (unit: m) (b).

    Figure  3.  Distributions of temperature (a) and salinity (b) in the surface water of the DFJR Estuary in May 2018.

    Figure  4.  Distributions of 224Ra (a) and 223Ra (b) in the surface water of the DFJR Estuary in May 2018.

    Figure  5.  Activities of 224Ra (a) and 223Ra (b) versus salinity in the DFJR Estuary in May 2018.

    Figure  6.  Plots of 224Ra versus 223Ra for all samples in the DFJR Estuary; b is an enlarged figure of the red frame in a.

    Figure  7.  Tidal level condition and the measured salinity, 224Ra and 223Ra activities of the DFJR Estuary during time series sampling in May 21–22, 2018.

    Table  1.   Summary of the SGD rates into estuaries around the world

    EstuariesSGD rate/(10–2 m3·m–2·d–1)References
    Subtropical estuaries
    Zhujiang River Estuary, China6–14 (wet season)Liu et al. (2018)
    23–50 (dry season)Liu et al. (2018)
    Estuary 1, Australia35Webb et al. (2019)
    Estuary 2, Australia14.7Webb et al. (2019)
    Knysna Estuary, South Africa1.5Petermann et al. (2018)
    Jiulongjiang River Estuary, China6.6–35.9Wang et al. (2015), Hong et al. (2017)
    Coffs Creek Estuary, Australia20.7Sadat-Noori et al. (2017)
    A subtropical Estuary, Australia24.3Sadat-Noori et al. (2015, 2016b)
    Hat Head Estuary, Australia0.2Sadat-Noori et al. (2016a)
    Korogoro Creek, Australia68.3Sadat-Noori et al. (2015, 2016a)
    Minjiang River Estuary, China0.08Liu et al. (2016)
    Caboolture River Estuary, Australia26.3Makings et al. (2014)
    Te Puma Estuary, New Zealand14Santos et al. (2014)
    Waikareao Estuary, New Zealand27.1Santos et al. (2014)
    to be continued
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    Continued from Table 1
    EstuariesSGD rate/(10–2 m3·m–2·d–1)References
    York River Estuary, USA8.4Luek and Beck (2014)
    Caloosahatchee River Estuary, USA1.3Charette et al. (2013)
    Tidal creek and estuary, Australia56.7Atkins et al. (2013)
    Neuse River Estuary, USA9.1Null et al. (2011)
    Okatee Estuary, USA12.1Moore et al. (2006)
    Loxahatchee River Estuary, USA7.2Swarzenski et al. (2006)
    Elizabeth River Estuary, USA11.4Charette and Buesseler (2004)
    Mississippi River, USA2.5Moore and Krest (2004)
    Delaware River Estuary, USA7.9Schwartz (2003)
    Dafengjiang River estuary, China4.64–5.02this study
    Tropical estuaries
    Coleroon Estuary, India62.4Prakash et al. (2018)
    Kanal River Estuary, Indonesia146.2Adyasari et al. (2018)
    Wiso River Estuary, Indonesia389.9Adyasari et al. (2018)
    Guatami Godavari Estuary, India25.2Rengarajan and Sarma (2015)
    Sanya River Estuary, China91.2Wang et al. (2013)
    Narmada Estuary, India5Rahaman and Singh (2012)
    Wanquan River Estuary, China1.8Su et al. (2011)
    Temperate estuaries
    Krka River Estuary, Croatia18.9Liu et al. (2019)
    Changjiang River Estuary, China0.8–4.0 (wet season)Gu et al. (2012), Liu et al. (2018)
    18-45 (dry season)Liu et al. (2018)
    Huanghe River Estuary, China10.1–109Xu et al. (2013)
    A salt marsh estuary, USA77Charette (2007)
    Pettaquamscutt Estuary, USA1.1Kelly and Moran (2002)
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