The sudden ocean warming and its potential influences on early−frozen landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica

Haihan Hu Jiechen Zhao Jingkai Ma Igor Bashmachnikov Natalia Gnatiuk Bo Xu Fengming Hui

Haihan Hu, Jiechen Zhao, Jingkai Ma, Igor Bashmachnikov, Natalia Gnatiuk, Bo Xu, Fengming Hui. The sudden ocean warming and its potential influences on early−frozen landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2326-7
Citation: Haihan Hu, Jiechen Zhao, Jingkai Ma, Igor Bashmachnikov, Natalia Gnatiuk, Bo Xu, Fengming Hui. The sudden ocean warming and its potential influences on early−frozen landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2326-7

doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2326-7

The sudden ocean warming and its potential influences on early−frozen landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 42276251, 42211530033, and 41876212; the Taishan Scholars Program.
More Information
    • 关键词:
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  
  • Figure  1.  Satellite image of the observation site in Nella Fjord near Zhongshan Station, modified from the WorldView–2 multi-bands image taken on October 20 2012 (https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov) (a) and Photo of the observation site shot in December 2021 (b). ZS, XXX; PG, XXX; CTD, Conductivity Temperature and Depth Sensor; ADV, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter; AWS, XXX; SIMBA, Sea Ice Mass Balance Array. CTD, ADV, and SIMBA distances were about 5–15 m.

    Figure  2.  The ocean temperature observed by CTD at 2 m beneath the landfast ice surface from April 16 to June 15 (a), ocean temperatures were observed by CTD, ADV and SIMBA from April 16 to 23 at different locations below the landfast ice surface (b), and the mean ocean temperature and standard deviation (error bars) of each day (c). In a and b, the green line is the temperature obtained by the SIMBA temperature chain, the average data from five temperature sensors down the ice bottom; the blue line is the ocean temperature data measured by CTD at 2 m beneath the landfast ice surface, and the purple line is the ocean temperature data measured by ADV at 5 m beneath the landfast ice surface; the horizontal coordinate of the black dotted line is the abrupt point calculated using the Mann-Kendall test (06:00 on April 20), and the red dotted line is the mean ocean temperature obtained by CTD during two periods.

    Figure  3.  The ocean salinity observed by CTD at 2 m beneath the landfast ice surface from April 16 to 23 (a) and the daily mean salinity and standard deviation of each day (b).

    Figure  4.  The ocean density calculated by the temperature and salinity observed by CTD at 2 m beneath the landfast ice surface from April 16 to 23 (a) and the daily mean ocean density and standard deviation of each day (b).

    Figure  5.  The time series of ocean current velocity beneath the landfast ice observed by ADV from April 16 to 23. a. U-component; b. V-component; c. W-component; d. horizontal speed.

    Figure  6.  The spectral analysis of ocean currents during April 16−19 (a) and April 20−23 (b), respectively. The periodogram method was used to detect the periodicity (Welch, 1967).

    Figure  7.  Roses diagram of the 2-min mean horizontal speed during April 16−23.

    Figure  8.  Conductive heat flux (Fc), latent heat flux (Fl), specific heat flux (Fs) and oceanic heat flux (Fw) were estimated using the residual method. The calculation interval is 6 h.

    Figure  9.  High-resolution oceanic heat flux calculated by bulk parameterisation method (a) and daily mean oceanic heat flux calculated by two different methods: bulk parameterisation method and residual method (b). In a, the blue and red lines represented 2-min mean and 1-h mean results, respectively, and the bold red lines represented ocean heat fluxes calculated using the residual method. The error bars in b represent ±1 standard deviation.

    Figure  10.  Vertical temperature profiles (a), vertical temperature gradient (b) and air temperature, mean sea ice temperature, ice surface temperature (the mean of five sensors near the ice surface), ice bottom temperature (the mean of five sensors near the ice bottom), and ocean temperature (the mean of five sensors at the bottom of the temperature chain at a depth of about 3 m from the sea ice surface), recorded by SIMBA (c). The asterisk white solid and white dotted lines in a are the ice bottom and surface, respectively. In b, the white dotted line is the ice bottom, and the red points are the ice bottom position obtained by borehole drilling.

    Figure  11.  Hourly tidal levels constructed by the harmonic analysis method.

    Figure  12.  The 3-D evolution of ocean current direction measured by ADV and ocean temperature measured by CTD (a) and the 3-D time-dependent distribution of ocean temperature and salinity measured by CTD (b).

    Figure  13.  Evolution of the daily mean sea level pressure in the Southern Ocean off Prize Bay (50°–70°S, 50°–100°E) from April 16 to 24, 2021. The reanalysis product was retrieved from the ERA5 hourly data, provided by ECMWF (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu), with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°. The red dotted line is the sea ice edge (SIC = 15%).

    Figure  14.  During the study period, the atmospheric and sea ice concentration in Prize Bay (65°–70°S, 70°–80°E). The purple line represents the average sea ice concentration in Prydz Bay; the red line represents the mean sea level pressure; the yellow line represents the mean 2-m temperature; and the green line represents the mean 10-m wind speed.

    Figure  15.  The ice growth rate from different experiments of oceanic heat fluxes. The time interval of the calculations is 6 h.

    Table  1.   Inter-comparisons of mean oceanic heat flux of two methods

    Methods Mean oceanic heat flux/(W · m−2)
    April 16–19 April 20–23 Totally
    Residual method 24.2 ± 7.6 44.8 ± 19.4 35.1 ± 18.2
    Bulk parameterization method 21.7 ± 11.1 44.8 ± 21.3 32.3 ± 20.2
    下载: 导出CSV
  • Allison I. 1981. Antarctic ice growth and oceanic heat flux. IAHS Publication, (131): 161–170
    Bigg P H. 1967. Density of water in SI units over the range 0–40 C. British Journal of Applied Physics, 18(4): 521–525, doi: 10.1088/0508-3443/18/4/315
    E Dongchen, Huang Jifeng, Zhang Shengkai. 2013. Analysis of tidal features of Zhongshan Station, East Antarctic. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University (in Chinese), 38(4): 379–382,464
    Ebert E E, Schramm J L, Curry J A. 1995. Disposition of solar radiation in sea ice and the upper ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 100(C8): 15965–15975, doi: 10.1029/95JC01672
    Guo Guijun, Shi Jiuxin, Gao Libao, et al. 2019. Reduced sea ice production due to upwelled oceanic heat flux in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(9): 4782–4789, doi: 10.1029/2018GL081463
    Guo Guijun, Shi Jiuxin, Jiao Yutian. 2015. Temporal variability of vertical heat flux in the Makarov Basin during the ice camp observation in summer 2010. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 34(11): 118–125, doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0755-z
    Heil P. 2006. Atmospheric conditions and fast ice at Davis, East Antarctica: A case study. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 111(C5): C05009
    Heil P, Allison I, Lytle V I. 1996. Seasonal and interannual variations of the oceanic heat flux under a landfast Antarctic sea ice cover. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 101(C11): 25741–25752, doi: 10.1029/96JC01921
    Hersbach H, Bell B, Berrisford P, et al. 2020. The ERA5 global reanalysis. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146(730): 1999–2049, doi: 10.1002/qj.3803
    Himmich K, Vancoppenolle M, Madec G, et al. 2023. Drivers of Antarctic sea ice advance. Nature Communications, 14: 6219, doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-41962-8
    Hu Haihan, Zhao Jiechen, Heil P, et al. 2023. Annual evolution of the ice–ocean interaction beneath landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. The Cryosphere, 17(6): 2231–2244, doi: 10.5194/tc-17-2231-2023
    Huang N E, Shen Z, Long S R, et al. 1998. The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 454(1971): 903–995
    Kirillov S, Dmitrenko I, Babb D, et al. 2015. The effect of ocean heat flux on seasonal ice growth in Young Sound (Northeast Greenland). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(7): 4803–4824, doi: 10.1002/2015JC010720
    Lei Ruibo, Cheng Bin, Hoppmann M, et al. 2022. Seasonality and timing of sea ice mass balance and heat fluxes in the Arctic transpolar drift during 2019–2020. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 10(1): 000089, doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.000089
    Lei Ruibo, Li Zhijun, Cheng Bin, et al. 2010. Annual cycle of landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, east Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 115(C2): C02006
    Lei Ruibo, Li Na, Heil P, et al. 2014. Multiyear sea ice thermal regimes and oceanic heat flux derived from an ice mass balance buoy in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119(1): 537–547, doi: 10.1002/2012JC008731
    Li Na, Lei Ruibo, Heil P, et al. 2023. Seasonal and interannual variability of the landfast ice mass balance between 2009 and 2018 in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. The Cryosphere, 17(2): 917–937, doi: 10.5194/tc-17-917-2023
    Li Xinqing, Shokr M, Hui Fengming, et al. 2020. The spatio-temporal patterns of landfast ice in Antarctica during 2006–2011 and 2016–2017 using high-resolution SAR imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, 242: 111736, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2020.111736
    Lytle V I, Massom R, Bindoff N, et al. 2000. Wintertime heat flux to the underside of East Antarctic pack ice. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 105(C12): 28759–28769, doi: 10.1029/2000JC900099
    Massom R A, Giles A B, Fricker H A, et al. 2010. Examining the interaction between multi-year landfast sea ice and the Mertz Glacier Tongue, East Antarctica: Another factor in ice sheet stability?. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 115(C12): C12027
    Massom R, Hill K, Barbraud C, et al. 2009. Fast ice distribution in Adélie Land, East Antarctica: interannual variability and implications for emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 374: 243–257, doi: 10.3354/meps07734
    Maykut G A. 1986. The surface heat and mass balance. In: Untersteiner N, ed. The Geophysics of Sea Ice. New York: Springer, 395–463
    Maykut G A, McPhee M G. 1995. Solar heating of the Arctic mixed layer. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 100(C12): 24691–24703, doi: 10.1029/95JC02554
    Maykut G A, Untersteiner N. 1971. Some results from a time-dependent thermodynamic model of sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 76(6): 1550–1575., doi: 10.1029/JC076i006p01550
    McMinn A, Ashworth C, Ryan K. 2000. In situ net primary productivity of an Antarctic fast ice bottom algal community. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 21: 177–185, doi: 10.3354/ame021177
    McPhee M G. 1979. The effect of the oceanic boundary layer on the mean drift of pack ice: Application of a simple model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 9(2): 388–400, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0388:TEOTOB>2.0.CO;2
    McPhee M G. 1992. Turbulent heat flux in the upper ocean under sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 97(C4): 5365–5379, doi: 10.1029/92JC00239
    McPhee M G. 2002. Turbulent stress at the ice/ocean interface and bottom surface hydraulic roughness during the SHEBA drift. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 107(C10): 8037
    McPhee M G, Ackley S F, Guest P, et al. 1996. The Antarctic zone flux experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(6): 1221–1232, doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<1221:TAZFE>2.0.CO;2
    McPhee M G, Kottmeier C, Morison J H. 1999. Ocean heat flux in the central Weddell Sea during winter. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29(6): 1166–1179, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1166:OHFITC>2.0.CO;2
    McPhee M G, Morison J H, Nilsen F. 2008. Revisiting heat and salt exchange at the ice-ocean interface: Ocean flux and modeling considerations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 113(C6): C06014
    McPhee M G, Untersteiner N. 1982. Using sea ice to measure vertical heat flux in the ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 87(C3): 2071–2074, doi: 10.1029/JC087iC03p02071
    Meehl G A, Arblaster J M, Chung C T Y, et al. 2019. Sustained ocean changes contributed to sudden Antarctic sea ice retreat in late 2016. Nature Communications, 10: 14, doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07865-9
    Miles B W J, Stokes C R, Jamieson S S R. 2017. Simultaneous disintegration of outlet glaciers in Porpoise Bay (Wilkes Land), East Antarctica, driven by sea ice break-up. The Cryosphere, 11(1): 427–442, doi: 10.5194/tc-11-427-2017
    Millero F J. 1978. Freezing point of seawater. Eighth Report of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards (JPOTS). UNESCO technical papers in marine sciences. 28: 29–35
    Millero F J, Poisson A. 1981. International one-atmosphere equation of state of seawater. Deep-Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, 28(6): 625–629
    Moreau S, Boyd P W, Strutton P G. 2020. Remote assessment of the fate of phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean sea-ice zone. Nature Communications, 11: 3108, doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16931-0
    Pan Haidong, Lv Xianqing, Wang Yingying, et al. 2018. Exploration of tidal-fluvial interaction in the Columbia River Estuary using S_TIDE. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(9): 6598–6619, doi: 10.1029/2018JC014146
    Parkinson C L, Cavalieri D J. 2012. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010. The Cryosphere, 6(4): 871–880, doi: 10.5194/tc-6-871-2012
    Perovich D K, Elder B. 2002. Estimates of ocean heat flux at SHEBA. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(9): 58-1–58-4.
    Peterson A K, Fer I, McPhee M G, et al. 2017. Turbulent heat and momentum fluxes in the upper ocean under Arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(2): 1439–1456, doi: 10.1002/2016JC012283
    Purdie C R, Langhorne P J, Leonard G H, et al. 2006. Growth of first-year landfast Antarctic sea ice determined from winter temperature measurements. Annals of Glaciology, 44: 170–176, doi: 10.3189/172756406781811853
    Purich A, Doddridge E W. 2023. Record low Antarctic sea ice coverage indicates a new sea ice state. Communications Earth & Environment, 4: 314
    Semtner A J. 1976. A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 6(3): 379–389, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1976)006<0379:AMFTTG>2.0.CO;2
    Singh H K A, Landrum L, Holland M M, et al. 2021. An overview of Antarctic sea ice in the community earth system model version 2, Part I: Analysis of the seasonal cycle in the context of sea ice thermodynamics and coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice processes. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13(3): e2020MS002143, doi: 10.1029/2020MS002143
    Sirevaag A. 2009. Turbulent exchange coefficients for the ice/ocean interface in case of rapid melting. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(4): L04606
    Sirevaag A, Fer I. 2009. Early spring oceanic heat fluxes and mixing observed from drift stations north of Svalbard. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39(12): 3049–3069, doi: 10.1175/2009JPO4172.1
    Stammerjohn S, Massom R, Rind D, et al. 2012. Regions of rapid sea ice change: An inter-hemispheric seasonal comparison. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(6): L06501
    Untersteiner N. 1961. On the mass and heat budget of arctic sea ice. Archiv für Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie Serie A, 12(2): 151–182
    Welch P. 1967. The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms. IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics, 15(2): 70–73, doi: 10.1109/TAU.1967.1161901
    Yang Yu, Li Zhijun, Leppäranta M, et al. 2016. Modelling the thickness of landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 28(1): 59–70, doi: 10.1017/S0954102015000449
    Zhang Liping, Delworth T L, Yang Xiaosong, et al. 2022. The relative role of the subsurface Southern Ocean in driving negative Antarctic Sea ice extent anomalies in 2016–2021. Communications Earth & Environment, 3: 302
    Zhao Jiechen, Cheng Jingjing, Tian Zhongxiang, et al. 2022. Snow and ice thicknesses derived from Fast Ice Prediction System Version 2.0 (FIPS V2.0) in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica: comparison with in-situ observations. Big Earth Data, 6(4): 492–503, doi: 10.1080/20964471.2021.1981196
    Zhao Jiechen, Cheng Bin, Vihma T, et al. 2020. Fast Ice Prediction System (FIPS) for land-fast sea ice at Prydz Bay, East Antarctica: an operational service for CHINARE. Annals of Glaciology, 61(83): 271–283, doi: 10.1017/aog.2020.46
    Zhao Jiechen, Cheng Bin, Yang Qinghua, et al. 2017a. Observations and modelling of first-year ice growth and simultaneous second-year ice ablation in the Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. Annals of Glaciology, 58(75pt1): 59–67, doi: 10.1017/aog.2017.33
    Zhao Jiechen, Yang Qinghua, Cheng Bin, et al. 2017b. Snow and land-fast sea ice thickness derived from thermistor chain buoy in the Prydz Bay, Antarctic. Haiyang Xuebao (in Chinese), 39(11): 115–127
    Zhao Jiechen, Yang Qinghua, Cheng Bin, et al. 2019. Spatial and temporal evolution of landfast ice near Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica, over an annual cycle in 2011/2012. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 38(5): 51–61, doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1339-5
  • 加载中
计量
  • 文章访问数:  66
  • HTML全文浏览量:  30
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-20
  • 录用日期:  2024-03-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-17

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回