2020 Vol. 39, No. 8

2020-8 Contents
2020, (8): 1-2.
Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Impact of warm mesoscale eddy on tropical cyclone intensity
Jia Sun, Guihua Wang, Xuejun Xiong, Zhenli Hui, Xiaomin Hu, Zheng Ling, Long Yu, Guangbing Yang, Yanliang Guo, Xia Ju, Liang Chen
2020, 39(8): 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1617-x
The spatial-temporal patterns of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity changes caused by the warm ocean mesoscale eddy (WOME) distribution are evaluated using two sets of idealized numerical experiments. The results show that the TC was intensified and weakened when a WOME was close to and far away from the TC center, respectively. The area where the WOME enhanced (weakened) TC intensity is called the inner (outer) area in this study. Amplitudes of the enhancement and weakening caused by the WOME in the inner and outer area decreased and increased over time, while the ranges of the inner and outer area diminished and expanded, respectively. The WOME in the inner area strengthened the secondary circulation of the TC, increased heat fluxes, strengthened the symmetry, and weakened the outer spiral rainband, which enhanced TC intensity. The effect was opposite if the WOME was in the outer area, and it weakened the TC intensity. The idealized simulation employed a stationary TC, and thus the results may only be applied to TCs with slow propagation. These findings can improve our understanding of the interactions between TC and the WOME and are helpful for improving TC intensity forecasting by considering the effect of the WOME in the outer areas.
The impact of concurrent variation of atmospheric meridional heat transport in western Baffen Bay and eastern Greenland on summer Arctic sea ice
Le Wang, Lujun Zhang, Wenfa Yang
2020, 39(8): 14-23. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1614-0
Based on the climatological reanalysis data of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and the Arctic sea ice data of the National Snow and Ice Data Center, the relationship between the Arctic sea ice area (SIA) and the interannual variation of atmospheric meridional heat transport (AMHT) was analyzed. The results show that the atmospheric meridional heat transported by transient eddy (TAMHT) dominates the June AMHT in mid-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, while the western Baffin Bay (B) and the eastern Greenland (G) are two gates for TAMHT entering the Arctic. TAMHT in the western Baffin Bay (B-TAMHT) and eastern Greenland (G-TAMHT) has a concurrent variation of reverse phase, which is closely related to the summer Arctic SIA. Possible mechanism is that the three Arctic atmospheric circulation patterns (AD, AO and NAO) in June can cause the concurrent variation of TAMHT in the B and G regions. This concurrent variation helps to maintain AD anomaly in summer through wave action and changes the polar air temperature, thus affecting the summer Arctic SIA. Calling the heat entering the Arctic as warm transport and the heat leaving Arctic as cold transport, then the results are classified into three situations based on B-TAMHT and G-TAMHT: warm B corresponding to cold G (WC), cold B corresponding to warm G (CW), cold B corresponding to cold G (CC), while warm B corresponding to warm G is virtually non-existent. During the WC situation, the SIA in the Pacific Arctic sediments and Kara Sea decreases; during the CW situation, the SIA in the Laptev Sea and Kara Sea decreases; during the CC situation, the SIA in the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and southern Beaufort Sea increases.
Parameterization of the sea spray generation function with whitecap coverage
Jian Shi, Wenjing Zhang, Xueyan Zhang, Jingdong Liu, Zhenyu Liu
2020, 39(8): 24-33. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1618-9
Sea spray droplets are produced by waves breaking on the sea surface, and they vary the transfer of energy between the atmosphere and ocean. The sea spray generation function (SSGF) is generally considered as a function of the initial radius of the spray droplets and the wind speed. However, ocean waves always exist at the air-sea interface, so it is not reasonable to consider only the effect of sea surface winds while ignoring the effects of ocean waves. Whitecap coverage is an important characteristic parameter of breaking waves, and researchers believe that this parameter is related to both wave state and wind speed. In this paper, the SSGF is parameterized by the whitecap coverage, and a new SSGF describing different droplet radii is organically integrated based on the whitecap coverage parameter. Then, with the relationship between the whitecap coverage and wave state, the influence of ocean waves on the SSGF for different wave states was analyzed by using observational data in the laboratory. The results show that the new SSGF that considers wave effects can reasonably describe the droplet generation process under different wave state conditions.
Marine Geology
Geochemical characteristics of platinum-group elements in polymetallic nodules from the Northwest Pacific Ocean
Zhongrong Qiu, Yanhui Dong, Weilin Ma, Weiyan Zhang, Kehong Yang, Hongqiao Zhao
2020, 39(8): 34-42. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1616-y
Polymetallic nodules and cobalt (Co)-rich crusts are enriched in platinum-group elements (PGEs), especially platinum (Pt) and may be important sinks of PGEs. At present, little information is available on PGEs in polymetallic nodules, and their geochemical characteristics and the causes of PGEs enrichment are unclear. Here, PGEs of polymetallic nodules from abyssal basin in the Marcus-Wake Seamount area of the Northwest Pacific Ocean are reported and compared with the published PGEs data of polymetallic nodules and Co-rich crusts in the Pacific. The total PGEs (ΣPGE) content of polymetallic nodules in study area is 258×10–9 in average, markedly higher than that of Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) nodules (ΣPGE=127×10–9) and lower than that of Co-rich crusts in the Marcus-Wake Seamount (ΣPGE=653×10–9), similar to that of Co-rich crusts in the South China Sea (ΣPGE=252×10–9). The CI chondrite-normalized PGEs patterns in different regions of polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts are highly consistent, with all being characterized by positive Pt and negative Pd anomalies. These results, together with those of previous studies, indicate that PGEs in polymetallic nodules and Co-rich crusts are mainly derived directly from seawater. Pt contents of polymetallic nodules from the study area are negatively correlated with water depth, and Pt/ΣPGE ratios in nodules there are also lower than those of the Co-rich crusts in the adjacent area, indicating that sedimentary water depth and oxygen fugacity of ambient seawater are the possible important controlling factors for Pt accumulation in crusts and nodules.
Marine Biology
Connectivity of fish assemblages along the mangrove-seagrass-coral reef continuum in Wenchang, China
Jianguo Du, Meiling Xie, Yuyu Wang, Zehao Chen, Wenhua Liu, Jianji Liao, Bin Chen
2020, 39(8): 43-52. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1490-7
Understanding the connectivity of fish among different typical habitats is important for conducting ecosystem-based management, particularly when designing marine protected areas (MPA) or setting MPA networks. To clarify of connectivity among mangrove, seagrass beds, and coral reef habitats in Wenchang, Hainan Province, China, the fish community structure was studied in wet and dry seasons of 2018. Gill nets were placed across the three habitat types, and the number of species, individuals, and body size of individual fish were recorded. In total, 3 815 individuals belonging to 154 species of 57 families were collected. The highest number of individuals and species was documented in mangroves (117 species, 2 623 individuals), followed by coral reefs (61 species, 438 individuals) and seagrass beds (46 species, 754 individuals). The similarity tests revealed highly significant differences among the three habitats. Approximately 23.4% species used two habitats and 11.0% species used three habitats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in habitat use among eight species (Mugil cephalus, Gerres oblongus, Siganus fuscescens, Terapon jarbua, Sillago maculata, Upeneus tragula, Lutjanus russellii, and Monacanthus chinensis) was detected, with a clear ontogenetic shift in habitat use from mangrove or seagrass beds to coral reefs. The similarity indices suggested that fish assemblages can be divided into three large groups namely coral, seagrass, and mangrove habitat types. This study demonstrated that connectivity exists between mangrove–seagrass–coral reef continuum in Wenchang area; therefore, we recommend that fish connectivity should be considered when designing MPAs or MPA network where possible.
Impacts of sample size for stomach content analysis on the estimation of ecosystem indices
Dongyan Han, Chongliang Zhang, Ying Xue, Binduo Xu, Yiping Ren, Yong Chen
2020, 39(8): 53-61. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1633-x
This study used Ecopath model of the Jiaozhou Bay as an example to evaluate the effect of stomach sample size of three fish species on the projection of this model. The derived ecosystem indices were classified into three categories: (1) direct indices, like the trophic level of species, influenced by stomach sample size directly; (2) indirect indices, like ecology efficiency (EE) of invertebrates, influenced by the multiple prey-predator relationships; and (3) systemic indices, like total system throughout (TST), describing the status of the whole ecosystem. The influences of different stomach sample sizes on these indices were evaluated. The results suggest that systemic indices of the ecosystem model were robust to stomach sample sizes, whereas specific indices related to species were indicated to be with low accuracy and precision when stomach samples were insufficient. The indices became more uncertain when the stomach sample sizes varied for more species. This study enhances the understanding of how the quality of diet composition data influences ecosystem modeling outputs. The results can also guide the design of stomach content analysis for developing ecosystem models.
Zooplankton community size-structure change and mesh size selection under the thermal stress caused by a power plant in a semi-enclosed bay
Qianwen Shao, Yifeng Zhu, Meixia Dai, Xia Lin, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
2020, 39(8): 62-70. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1634-9
Zooplankton samples were collected using 505, 160 and 77 μm mesh nets around a power plant during four seasons in 2011. We measured total length of zooplankton and divided zooplankton into seven size classes in order to explore how zooplankton community size-structure might be altered by thermal discharge from power plant. The total length of zooplankton varied from 93.7 to 40 074.7 μm. The spatial distribution of meso-zooplankton (200 −2 000 μm) populations were rarely affected by thermal discharge, while macro- (2 000 −10 000 μm) and megalo-zooplankton (>10 000 μm) had an obvious tendency to migrate away from the outfall of power plant. Thus, zooplankton community tended to become smaller and biodiversity reduced close to power plant. Moreover, we compared the zooplankton communities in three different mesh size nets. Species richness, abundance, evenness index and Shannon−Wiener diversity index of the 505 µm mesh size were significantly lower than those recorded from the 160 and 77 µm mesh size. Average zooplankton abundance was highest in the 77 µm mesh net ((27 690.0±1 633.7) ind./m3), followed by 160 µm mesh net ((9 531.1±1 079.5) ind./m3), and lowest in 505 µm mesh net ((494.4±104.7) ind./m3). The ANOSIM and SIMPER tests confirmed that these differences were mainly due to small zooplankton and early developmental stages of zooplankton. It is the first time to use the 77 µm mesh net to sample zooplankton in such an environment. The 77 µm mesh net had the overwhelming abundance of the copepod genus Oithona, as an order of magnitude greater than recorded for 160 µm mesh net and 100% loss through the 505 μm mesh net. These results indicate that the use of a small or even multiple sampling net is necessary to accurately quantify entire zooplankton community around coastal power plant.
Evolution of shoals and vegetation of Jiuduansha in the Changjiang River Estuary of China in the last 30 years
Fengrun Wu, Chunfu Tong, Mitch Torkelson, Yan Wang
2020, 39(8): 71-78. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1636-7
The evolution of the shoals and vegetation plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the river regime and the estuarine ecosystem. However, the interaction between the evolution of shoals and vegetation dynamic has rarely been reported. In this study, we determined the interaction between the shoal and vegetation evolution of Jiuduansha in the Changjiang River Estuary in the last 30 years. We did this through the collection and summarization of the existing data of the regional hydrological processes, wading engineering, and vegetation, and combined it with the analysis of nautical charts and remote sensing images. During the past 30 years, the expansion of the shoals within the 0 m isobath in Jiuduansha was obvious, with an increase of 176.5%, while the expansion of the shoals within the 5 m isobath was relatively slow. The regional hydrological characteristics in the Jiuduansha area changed dramatically, especially the sediment discharges. The area of vegetation in Jiuduansha increased from 9.1 km2 in 1990 to 65.68 km2 in 2015, while the variations in the different vegetation types were different. The best combination of environmental factors with a significant correlation on the shoals within the 0 m isobath is the area of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis. The evolution of Jiuduansha shoals was significantly affected by the variations in hydrological characteristics. Meanwhile, on a long-term scale, the expansion of the shoals could promote the regional vegetation expansions due to the suitable elevation and environmental conditions it provides. The interaction between the shoal and vegetation evolution varied in the different vegetation types and different elevations. In the future, long-term monitoring and detailed data are needed to the systematical analysis of the interaction between the hydrological processes and the evolution of the shoal and vegetation.
The profound influence of Kuroshio intrusion on microphytoplankton community in the northeastern South China Sea
Xingzhou Wang, Yuqiu Wei, Chao Wu, Congcong Guo, Jun Sun
2020, 39(8): 79-87. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1608-y
To further understand the effect of Kuroshio intrusion on phytoplankton community structure in the northeastern South China Sea (NSCS, 14°–23°N, 114°–124°E), one targeted cruise was carried out from July to August, 2017. A total of 79 genera and 287 species were identified, mainly including Bacillariophyta (129 species), Pyrrophyta (150 species), Cyanophyta (4 species), Chrysophyta (3 species) and Haptophyta (1 species). The average abundance of phytoplankton was 2.14×103 cells/L, and Cyanobacterium was dominant species accounting for 86.84% of total phytoplankton abundance. The abundance and distribution of dominant Cyanobacterium were obviously various along the flow of the Kuroshio, indicating the Cyanobacterium was profoundly influenced by the physical process of the Kuroshio. Therefore, Cyanobacterium could be used to indicate the influence of Kuroshio intrusion. In addition, the key controlling factors of the phytoplankton community were nitrogen, silicate, phosphate and temperature, according to Canonical Correspondence Analysis. However, the variability of these chemical parameters in the study water was similarly induced by the physical process of circulations. Based on the cluster analysis, the similarity of phytoplankton community is surprisingly divided by the regional influence of the Kuroshio intrusion, which indicated Kuroshio intrusion regulates phytoplankton community in the NSCS.
Ocean Engineering
The pressure compensation technology of deep-sea sampling based on the real gas state equation
Shuo Wang, Shijun Wu, Canjun Yang
2020, 39(8): 88-95. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1637-6
Compressed gas is usually used for the pressure compensation of the deep-sea pressure-maintaining sampler. The pressure and volume of the recovered fluid sample are highly related to the precharged gas. To better understand the behavior of the gas under high pressure, we present a new real gas state equation based on the compression factor Z which was derived from experimental data. Then theoretical calculation method of the pressure and volume of the sample was introduced based on this empirical gas state equation. Finally, the proposed calculation method was well verified by the high-pressure vessel experiment of the sampler under 115 MPa.
Marine Technology
Pitfalls of acid leaching method for determining organic and inorganic carbon contents in marine sediments
Chen Ling, Zhifei Liu, Jingwen Zhang, Yulong Zhao, Yanwei Zhang, Adrian R. Fernandez
2020, 39(8): 96-102. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1631-z
Organic and inorganic carbon contents of marine sediments are important to reconstruct marine productivity, global carbon cycle, and climate change. A proper method to separate and determine organic and inorganic carbons is thus of great necessity. Although the best method is still disputable, the acid leaching method is widely used in many laboratories because of its ease-of-use and high accuracy. The results of the elemental analysis of sediment trap samples reveal that organic and inorganic carbon contents cannot be obtained using the acid leaching method, causing an infinitely amplified error when the carbon content of the decarbonated sample is 12%±1% according to a mathematical derivation. Acid fumigation and gasometric methods are used for comparison, which indicates that other methods can avoid this problem in organic carbon analysis. For the first time, this study uncovers the pitfalls of the acid leaching method, which limits the implication in practical laboratory measurement, and recommends alternative solutions of organic/inorganic carbon determination in marine sediments.
Using a semi-analytical model to retrieve Secchi depth in coastal and estuarine waters
Xianfu Liu, Xuejiao Meng, Xiaoyong Wang, Dayong Bi, Lei Chen, Quansheng Lou
2020, 39(8): 103-112. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1620-2
Secchi depth (SD, m) is a direct and intuitive measure of water’s transparency, which is also an indicator of water quality. In 2015, a semi-analytical model was developed to derive SD from remote sensing reflectance, thus able to provide maps of water’s transparency in satellite images. Here an in-situ dataset (338 stations) is used to evaluate its potential ability to monitor water quality in the coastal and estuarine waters, with measurements covering the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Estuary, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea where measured SD values span a range of 0.2–21.0 m. As a preliminary validation result, according to the whole dataset, the unbiased percent difference (UPD) between estimated and measured SD is 23.3% (N=338, R2=0.89), with about 60% of stations in the dataset having relative difference (RD)≤20%, over 80% of stations having RD≤40%. Furthermore, by excluding the field data which with relatively larger uncertainties, the semi-analytical model yielded the UPD of 17.7% (N=132, R2=0.92) with SD range of 0.2–11.0 m. In addition, the semi-analytical model was applied to Landsat-8 images in the Zhujiang River Estuary, and retrieved high-quality mapping and reliable spatial-temporal patterns of water clarity. Taking into account the uncertainties associated with both field measurements and satellite data processing, and that there were no tuning of the semi-analytical model for these regions, these findings indicate highly robust retrieval of SD from spectral techniques for such turbid coastal and estuarine waters. The results suggest it is now possible to routinely monitor coastal water transparency or visibility at high-spatial resolutions from measurements, like Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 and newly launched Gaofen-5.
Marine Information Science
Big data-driven automatic generation of ship route planning in complex maritime environments
Peng Han, Xiaoxia Yang
2020, 39(8): 113-120. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1638-5
With the rapid development of the global economy, maritime transportation has become much more convenient due to large capacities and low freight. However, this means the sea lanes are becoming more and more crowded, leading to high probabilities of marine accidents in complex maritime environments. According to relevant historical statistics, a large number of accidents have happened in water areas that lack high precision navigation data, which can be utilized to enhance navigation safety. The purpose of this work was to carry out ship route planning automatically, by mining historical big automatic identification system (AIS) data. It is well-known that experiential navigation information hidden in maritime big data could be automatically extracted using advanced data mining techniques; assisting in the generation of safe and reliable ship planning routes for complex maritime environments. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to construct a big data-driven framework for generating ship planning routes automatically, under varying navigation conditions. The method performs density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise first on a large number of ship trajectories to form different trajectory vector clusters. Then, it iteratively calculates its centerline in the trajectory vector cluster, and constructs the waterway network from the node-arc topology relationship among these centerlines. The generation of shipping route could be based on the waterway network and conducted by rasterizing the marine environment risks for the sea area not covered by the waterway network. Numerous experiments have been conducted on different AIS data sets in different water areas, and the experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the framework of the ship route planning proposed in this paper.
News and Views
Uniqueness of Lekima compared to tropical cyclones landed in the east coast of China during 1979–2019
Yifan Ding, Jiping Liu, Shengzhe Chen, Xiao Cheng, Zhaojun Zheng
2020, 39(8): 121-124. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1639-4