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Temim Deli. Impacts of Early Pleistocene glacial vicariance among refugial lineages and Mid-Late Pleistocene interglacial dispersal and expansion on forging population genetic structure of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae) across the Red Sea and Indo-West Pacific Oceans[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica.
Citation: Temim Deli. Impacts of Early Pleistocene glacial vicariance among refugial lineages and Mid-Late Pleistocene interglacial dispersal and expansion on forging population genetic structure of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae) across the Red Sea and Indo-West Pacific Oceans[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica.

Impacts of Early Pleistocene glacial vicariance among refugial lineages and Mid-Late Pleistocene interglacial dispersal and expansion on forging population genetic structure of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae) across the Red Sea and Indo-West Pacific Oceans

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  • Corresponding author: * Corresponding author, E-mail: temimdeli@yahoo.co.uk
  • Available Online: 2024-04-25
  • This study aims at identifying the microevolutionary processes responsible for the onset of the remarkable phylogeographic structure already recorded for the endangered giant clam Tridacna squamosa across its distribution range. For this purpose, the evolutionary, biogeographic and demographic histories of the species were comprehensively reconstructed in a mitochondrial dataset comprising nearly the whole available published cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences of T. squamosa. Relatively higher level of genetic diversification was unveiled within T. squamosa, in comparison to earlier macro-geographic investigations, whereby five mitochondrial clusters were delineated. The resulting divergent gene pools in the Red Sea, Western Indian Ocean, Indo-Malay Archipelago and Western Pacific were found to be driven by Early Pleistocene glacial vicariance events among refugial lineages. Accentuated genetic diversification of the species across the Indo-Malay Archipelago was successively triggered by historical dispersal event during the Mid-Pleistocene MIS19c interglacial. This latter historical event might have also enabled genetically distinct giant clams from the Indo-Malay Archipelago to subsequently colonize the Western Pacific, accounting for the genetic diversity hotspot detected within this region (comprising three divergent mitochondrial clusters). Late Pleistocene demographic expansion of T. squamosa, during the Last Interglacial period, could have contributed to forging spatial distribution of the so far delineated genetic entities across the Indo-Western Pacific. Overall, being resilient to major climate shifts during the Pleistocene through adaptation and consequent diversification, T. squamosa could be used as a model species to track the impact of climate change on genetic variability and structure of marine species. In particular, the new information, provided in this investigation, may help with understanding and/or predicting the consequences of ongoing global warming on genetic polymorphism of endangered coral reef species among which Tridacna sp. are listed as ecologically important.
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