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Zooneuston and zooplankton abundance and diversity in relation to spatial and nycthemeral variations in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea
Gopikrishna Mantha, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani, Al-Aidaroos Ali M, Michael P Crosby
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1427-1
Zooplankton and zooneuston observations were made at seven stations (four from the Gulf of Aqaba and three from the northern Red Sea), during September and October 2016. The main objective of this study was to assess the variability of nycthemeral fauna in relation to the sampling methods using two different types of nets namely, WP2 net and Neuston net along the two study sites, i.e., the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea. Zooplankton was sampled vertically using a standard WP2 net from a depth of 200 m to the surface, whereas zooneuston was made using a standard Neuston net from a depth of 0–10 cm of the water surface. Total zooplankton density was maximum during night time ((617.83 ± 201.84) ind./m3) at the Gulf of Aqaba and total zooneuston was maximum during night at the northern Red Sea ((60.94±29.48) ind./m3), respectively. The most abundant taxa were Copepoda, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Chaetognatha, Tunicata and Ostracoda. The abundance was almost 50% higher at night time at both the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea. Overall, 30 taxa covering 10 phyla and 27 taxa covering 8 phyla were recorded in the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea.
key words: zooplankton, zooneuston, nycthemeral variation, Cyclopoida, Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea
Assessment of the Tessier and BCR sequential extraction procedures for elemental partitioning of Ca, Fe, Mn, Al, and Ti and their application to surface sediments from Chinese continental shelf
Yanli LIU, Jing ZHANG, Huijun HE
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1189-1
Surface sediments can integrate a wide variety of information of seawater in marginal seas, e.g., the Quaternary sedimentary shelf such as the East China Sea (ECS) and Yellow Sea (YS). The Tessier and BCR sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) have been widely applied for extraction of various geochemical phases from sediments. To choose a suitable SEP for phase extraction of sediments from the above Quaternary sedimentary shelf, efficiency and selectivity experiments were conducted on typical individual minerals and the applicability of each SEP was assessed for natural sediments (the natural sediment standard GSD-9 and three surface sediment samples). The geochemical represented elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Al, and Ti) were measured using both SEPs. Both SEPs have good dissolution efficiency and selectivity for the targeted geochemical phases; the optimized extractant volume for each fraction was determined. The Tessier SEP is particularly recommended for the study of adsorption-desorption process. The application of the Tessier SEP to surface sediments can furnish valuable information, including the productivity conditions (via the reducible fraction Mn) and sedimentary environments (via the carbonate fraction Ca). These results confirm that the Tessier SEP is suitable for elemental fractionation in sediments from the Chinese continental shelf.
key words: elemental fractionation, surface sediments, Tessier SEP, BCR SEP, efficiency, selectivity
Macrobenthic assemblage characteristics under stressed waters and ecological health assessment using AMBI and M-AMBI: a case study at the Xin’an River Estuary, Yantai, China
Zhengquan ZHOU, Xiaojing LI, Linlin CHEN, Baoquan LI, Tiantian LIU, Binghua AI, Lufei YANG, Bo LIU, Qiao CHEN
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1180-x
To understand the ecological status and macrobenthic assemblages of the Xin’an River Estuary and its adjacent waters, a survey was conducted for environmental variables and macrobenthic assemblage structure in September 2012 (Yantai, China). Several methods are adopted in the data analysis process: dominance index, diversity indices, cluster analysis, non-metric multi-dimentional scaling ordination, AMBI and M-AMBI. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of six out of eight sampling stations were in a good condition with low concentration. The average value of DO ((2.89±0.60) mg/L) and pH (4.28±0.43) indicated that the research area faced with the risk of ocean acidification and underlying hypoxia. A total of 62 species were identified, of which the dominant species group was polychaetes. The average abundance and biomass was 577.50 ind./m2 and 6.01 g/m2, respectively. Compared with historical data, the macrobenthic assemblage structure at waters around the Xin’an River Estuary was in a relatively stable status from 2009 to 2012. Contaminant indicator species Capitella capitata appeared at Sta. Y1, indicating the animals here suffered from hypoxia and acidification. AMBI and M-AMBI results showed that most sampling stations were slightly disturbed, which were coincided with the abiotic measurement on evaluating the health conditions. Macrobenthic communities suffered pressures from ocean acidification and hypoxia at the research waters, particularly those at Stas Y1, Y2 and Y5, which displays negative results in benthic health evaluation.
key words: macrobenthos, Xin’an River Estuary, ocean acidification, hypoxia, AMBI, M-AMBI
Distribution of reactive aluminum under the influence of mesoscale eddies in the western South China Sea
Jiaxing LIU, Linbin ZHOU, Yehui TAN, Qiong WANG, Zifeng HU, Jiajun LI, Xin JIANG, Zhixin KE
doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1046-7
To understand the distribution of aluminum (Al) under the influence of mesocale eddies in the western South China Sea (SCS), sea level anomaly, geostrophic current, environmental parameters and reactive Al were investigated in the western SCS in August 2013. The highest reactive Al concentration ((180±64) nmol/L) was observed in the surface waters, indicating a substantial atmospheric input. Vertically, the reactive Al decreased from the surface high concentration to the subsurface minima at the depth of chlorophyll a (Chl a) maxima and then increased again with depth at most of the stations. The average concentration of reactive Al in the upper 100 m water column was significantly lower in the cyclonic eddy ((137±6) nmol/L) as compared with that in the non-eddy waters ((180±21) nmol/L). By contrast, the average concentrations of Chl a and silicate in the upper 100 m water column were higher in the cyclonic eddy and lower in the anticyclonic eddy. There was a significant negative correlation between the average concentrations of reactive Al and Chl a in the upper 100 m water column. The vertical distribution of reactive Al and the negative correlation between reactive Al and Chl a both suggest that the reactive Al in the upper water column was significantly influenced by biological removal processes. Our results indicate that mesoscale eddies could regulate the distribution of reactive Al by influencing the primary production and phytoplankton community structure in the western SCS.
key words: reactive aluminum, mesoscale eddy, chlorophyll a, biological removal, phytoplankton, primary production, western South China Sea
Morphological studies of six free-living spirotrichean ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) with three new records from the coastal South China Sea
Xumiao CHEN, Kuidong XU
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1304-3
The living morphology and infraciliature of six spirotrichous ciliates collected from the coastal South China Sea were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. These are Euplotes woodruffi Gaw, 1939, Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Song and Wilbert, 1997, Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013, Protogastrostyla pulchra (Perejaslawzewa, 1886) Gong et al., 2007, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata (Kahl, 1932) Song and Warren, 2000, and Pseudokahliella marina (Foissner et al., 1982) Berger et al., 1985. Among these, Protogastrostyla pulchra, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata and Pseudokahliella marina are reported from the South China Sea for the first time, which manifest obvious differences apart from other Chinese populations. As new contribution, the detailed description of isolates from mangrove habitat of E. woodruffi andH. enigmatica, and aquaculture pond isolate of N. flavicana, are present.
key words: South China Sea, new record, ciliates, Spirotrichea, taxonomy
Wave prediction in a port using a fully nonlinear Boussinesq wave model
Young-Kwang Choi, Seung-Nam Seo, Jin-Yong Choi, Fengyan Shi, Kwang-Soon Park
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1456-2
A wave forecasting system using FUNWAVE-TVD which is based on the fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations by Chen (2006) was developed to provide an accurate wave prediction in the Port of Busan, South Korea. This system is linked to the Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) developed by Park et al. (2015). The computational domain covers a region of 9.6 km×7.0 km with a grid size of 2 m in both directions, which is sufficient to resolve short waves and dominant sea states. The total number of grid points exceeds 16 millions, making the model computational expensive. To provide real-time forecasting, an interpolation method, which is based on pre-calculated results of FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN forecasting results at the FUNWAVE-TVD offshore boundary, was used. A total of 45 cases were pre-calculated, which took 71 days on 924 computational cores of a Linux cluster system. Wind wave generation and propagation from the deep water were computed using the SWAN in KOOS. SWAN results provided a boundary condition for the FUNWAVE-TVD forecasting system. To verify the model, wave observations were conducted at three locations inside the port in a time period of more than 7 months. A model/model comparison between FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN was also carried out. It is found that, FUNWAVE-TVD improves the forecasting results significantly compared to SWAN which underestimates wave heights in sheltered areas due to incorrect physical mechanism of wave diffraction, as well as large wave heights caused by wave reflections inside the port.
key words: real-time wave forecasting, FUNWAVE-TVD, SWAN, KOOS, wave observations, wave diffraction
A dual-period response of the Kuroshio Extension SST to Aleutian Low activity in the winter season
Peilong YU, Lifeng ZHANG, Hu LIU, Xing LIU, Juan ZHU
doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1104-1
Based on our previous work, the winter sea surface temperature (SST) in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region showed significant variability over the past century with periods of ~6 a between 1930 and 1950 and ~10 a between 1980 and 2009. How the activity of the Aleutian Low (AL) induces this dual-period variability over the two different timespans is further investigated here. For the ~6 a periodicity during 1930–1950, negative wind stress curl (WSC) anomalies in the central subtropical Pacific associated with an intensified AL generate positive sea surface height (SSH) anomalies. When these wind-induced SSH anomalies propagate westwards to the east of Taiwan, China two years later, positive velocity anomalies appear around the Kuroshio to the east of Taiwan and then the mean advection via this current of velocity anomalies leads to a strengthened KE jet and thus an increase in the KE SST one year later. For the ~10 a periodicity during 1980–2009, a negative North Pacific Oscillation-like dipole takes 2–3 a to develop into a significant positive North Pacific Oscillation-like dipole, and this process corresponds to the northward shift of the AL. Negative WSC anomalies associated with this AL activity in the central North Pacific are able to induce the positive SSH anomalies. These oceanic signals then propagate westward into the KE region after 2–3 a, favoring a northward shift of the KE jet, thus leading to the warming of the KE SST. The feedbacks of the KE SST anomaly on the AL forcing are both negative for these two periodicities. These results suggest that the dual-period KE SST variability can be generated by the two-way KE-SST-AL coupling.
key words: sea surface temperature, Kuroshio Extension, Aleutian Low activity, dual-period variability
Sedimentary geochemical proxies for methane seepage at Site C14 in the Qiongdongnan Basin in the northern South China Sea
Tiantian SUN, Daidai WU, Fei YANG, Lihua LIU, Xuegang CHEN, Ying YE
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1460-6
Recent studies have shown that specific geochemical characteristics of sediments can be used to reconstruct past methane seepage events. In this work, the correlation between the Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios of sediment samples is analyzed and the sulfate concentration profile in Site C14 from cold-seep sediments in the Qiongdongnan Basin in northern South China Sea is obtained. The results confirmed that, sulfate at 0–247 cm below sea floor (Unit I) is mainly consumed by organic matter sulfate reduction (OSR), while sulfate at 247–655 cm (Unit II) is consumed by both the OSR and the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). In addition, the bottom sediment layer is affected by weak methane seepage. The Mo and U enrichment factors also exhibit similar trends in their respective depth profiles. The responses of trace elements, including Co/Al, Ni/Al, Cr/Al and Zn/Al ratios to methane seepage allowed the study of depositional conditions and methane seepage events. Based on the results, it is speculated that the depositional conditions of Unit II changed with depth from moderate conditions of sulfidic and oxic conditions to locally anoxic conditions, and finally to suboxic conditions due to methane fluid leakage. The stable isotope values of chromium-reducible sulfide produced by AOM and those of sulfide formed by OSR in the early diagenetic environment suffered serious depletion of 34S. This was probably due to weak methane leakage, which caused the slower upward diffusion and the effect of early diagenesis on the samples. It is necessary to consider the effects of depositional environments and diagenesis on these geochemical parameters.
key words: Qiongdongnan Basin, trace elements, stable isotope values, anaerobic oxidation of methane, methane activity
Succession of causative species during spring blooms in the East China Sea: coupled biophysical numerical modeling
Ke SUN, Zhongfeng QIU, Yijun HE, Wei FAN, Zexun WEI
doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0964-0
In the East China Sea (ECS), the succession of causative species responsible for blooms is a recurrent phenomenon during the spring, which changes from diatoms to dinoflagellates. Observations from space andin situ cruises captured this pattern of succession during spring of 2005. In this study, we coupled two biological models, which were developed previously forSkeletonema costatum andProrocentrum donghaiense, into a circulation model tailored for the ECS. The coupled biophysical model was used to hindcast the blooms and to test the hypothesis proposed in earlier studies that phosphate (PO43–) is the first-order decider of the succession. The coupled model successfully reproduced the hydrodynamics (as described in a companion paper by Sun et al., the spatiotemporal distribution of the chlorophylla (Chla) concentration, and the species succession reasonably well. By analyzing the effects of different factors on the surface Chla distribution, we confirmed that the offshore boundaries of the blooms were confined by PO43–. In addition, we suggest that surface wind fields may modulate the horizontal distribution of blooms. Thus, during the dispersal of blooms, surface winds coupled with PO43– may control the succession of blooms in the ECS. The proposed coupled model provides a benchmark to facilitate future improvements by including more size classes for organisms, multiple nutrient schemes, and additional processes.
key words: Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum donghaiense, species succession, biophysical model, East China Sea
Major and trace element geochemistry of the mid-Bay of Bengal surface sediments: implications for provenance
Jingrui LI, Shengfa LIU, Xiuli FENG, Xingquan SUN, Xuefa SHI
doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1041-z
The major and trace elements in 110 surface sediment samples collected from the middle of the Bay of Bengal (mid-Bay of Bengal) are analyzed to investigate provenance. Si levels are highest, followed by Al, and the distributions of these two elements are identical. The average CIA* (chemical index of alteration) value is 72.07, indicating that the degree of weathering of the sediments in the study area is intermediate between those of sediments of the Himalayan and Indian rivers. Factor analyses and discrimination function analyses imply that the two main provenances are the Himalayan and the Indian continent. The inverse model calculation of the Ti-normalized element ratios of the Bay of Bengal sediments indicate an estimated average contribution of 83.5% and 16.5% from the Himalayan and peninsular Indian rivers to the study area, respectively. The Himalayan source contributes more sediment to the eastern part of the study area, whereas the western part receives more sediment from the Indian Peninsula than did the eastern part. The primary mechanisms for deposition of sediments in the study area are the transport of Himalayan matter by turbidity currents and river-diluted water and the transport of Indian matter to the study area by a surface circulation in the Bay of Bengal, particularly the East India Coastal Current.
key words: major and trace element, Bay of Bengal, provenance, quantification, factor analyses

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