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Zooneuston and zooplankton abundance and diversity in relation to spatial and nycthemeral variations in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea
Mantha Gopikrishna, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani, Al-Aidaroos Ali M, Michael P Crosby
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1427-1
Zooplankton and zooneuston observations were made at seven stations (four from the Gulf of Aqaba and three from the northern Red Sea), during September and October 2016. The main objective of this study was to assess the variability of nycthemeral fauna in relation to the sampling methods using two different types of nets namely, WP2 net and Neuston net along the two study sites, i.e., the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea. Zooplankton was sampled vertically using a standard WP2 net from a depth of 200 m to the surface, whereas zooneuston was made using a standard Neuston net from a depth of 0–10 cm of the water surface. Total zooplankton density was maximum during night time ((617.83 ± 201.84) ind./m3) at the Gulf of Aqaba and total zooneuston was maximum during night at the northern Red Sea ((60.94±29.48) ind./m3), respectively. The most abundant taxa were Copepoda, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Chaetognatha, Tunicata and Ostracoda. The abundance was almost 50% higher at night time at both the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea. Overall, 30 taxa covering 10 phyla and 27 taxa covering 8 phyla were recorded in the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea. Present work is a preliminary attempt to study the variability of nycthemeral and spatial zooplankton and zooneuston diversity and abundance in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea regions, which necessity the need for more extended investigations to understand the local and large-scale processes of this complex, but unique ecosystem.
key words: zooplankton, zooneuston, nycthemeral variation, Cyclopoida, Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea
Plectranthias kamii Randll, 1980 (Perciformes: Serranidae) collected from Bitung, North Sulawesi: first record from the Southwest Pacific Ocean
Teguh PERISTIWADY, Jianguo DU, Frensly Damianus HUKOM, Petrus Christianus MAKATIPU, Kar Hoe LOH
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1289-y
Three specimens of the serranid fish (Serranidae), Plectranthias kamii Randall, 1980 were collected from fish market, Bitung, North Sulawesi on May and June 2010. Some morphological characters P. kamii is closely related to P. sheni, P. megalophthalmus, P. retrofasciatus, P. rubrifasciatus, P. knappi, P. helenae, P. pelicieri, P. jothyi, P. retrofasciatus and P. randalli in sharing of body width, upper jaw length, pelvic spine length and orbit diameter. Meristic count characters of P. kamii differ from P. sheni, P. pilicieri, P. megalophthalmus, P. retrofasciatus and P. rubrifasciatus in having more numerous dorsal spine (18 vs. 15–17) and below lateral line (33–34 vs. 29–33) and differ from P. megalophthalmus and P. rubrifasciatus in having more numerous pored scales in lateral line (13 vs. 14–15) and shorter of anal spine. The present anthiine fish collected from Bitung, Indonesia was described as new record and bringing the total number of species of this genus known in Indonesia to seven.
key words: Anthinae, Indonesia, new record, Plectranthias kamii, Serranidae
The first record of Porcellanaster ceruleus (Echinodermata: Porcellanasteridae) in the South China Sea
Ruiyan ZHANG, Xiaogu WANG, Yadong ZHOU, Bo LU, Chunsheng WANG
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1324-z
Porcellanasteridae is a group of starfish that live in the deep ocean around the world. The type species of this family, Porcellanaster ceruleus Wyville Thomson, 1878, is cosmopolitan as well as polymorphic. The first record of its occurrence in the South China Sea is reported in this paper. One specimen was caught in the South China Sea on June 6, 2015 by trawl and identified to be a P. ceruleus. The morphological characteristics of this specimen are described and detailed pictures are provided. The discovery of this specimen further expands the distribution of P. ceruleus in the Pacific Ocean. The world distribution records of P. ceruleus and its synonymic species are reviewed in this paper.
key words: Porcellanasteridae, Porcellanaster ceruleus, new record, South China Sea
The first report of the genus Willenstenhelia (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae) from the China seas, with description of a new species
Lin MA, Xinzheng LI
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1306-1
A new species Willenstenhelia mirabilipes sp. nov. (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciiidae) is described based on specimens collected from the South China Sea. This is also the first report of the genus Willenstenhelia from the China seas. The new species differs from congeners by the combined characters: all somites without spinules on surface except anal somite; third segment of female P4 exopod with two inner setae; female P5 baseoendopodal lobe with four elements and P5 exopod with sharp apical spine; caudal ramus about six times as long as broad.
key words: Crustacea, new species, taxonomy
Vertical development of a Prorocentrum donghaiense bloom in the coastal waters of the East China Sea: coupled biophysical numerical modeling
Ke SUN, Zhongfeng QIU, Yijun HE, Wei FAN, Zexun WEI
doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0965-z
Algal blooms caused by Prorocentrum donghaiense occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) during spring in recent years. In this study, a coupled biophysical model was used to hindcast a massive P. donghaiense bloom that occurred in 2005 and to determine the factors influencing bloom initiation and development. The model comprised the Regional Ocean Modeling System tailored for the ECS that utilized a multi-nested configuration and a population dynamics model for P. donghaiense. Comparisons between simulations and observations revealed that the biological model is capable of reproducing the characteristics of P. donghaiense growth under different irradiances and phosphorus limitation scenarios. The variation of intracellular phosphorus and the effects of P. donghaiense on ambient nutrients conditions were also reproduced. The biophysical model hindcasted the hydrodynamics and spatiotemporal distributions of the P. donghaiense bloom reasonably well. Bloom development was consistent with observations reported in earlier studies. The results demonstrate the capability of the model in capturing subsurface incubation during bloom initiation. Then model’s hindcast solutions were further used to diagnose the factors controlling the vertical distribution. Phosphate appeared to be one of the factors controlling the subsurface incubation, whereas surface wind fields played an important role in determining P. donghaiense distribution. The results highlight the importance of nutrient-limitation as a mechanism in the formation of P. donghaiense subsurface layers and the dispersing of P. donghaiense blooms. This coupled biophysical model should be improved and used to investigate P. donghaiense blooms occurring in different scenarios.
key words: Prorocentrum donghaiense, algal blooms, biophysical model, subsurface incubation, East China Sea
Next-generation sequencing revealed specific microbial symbionts in Porites lutea with pigment abnormalities in North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Danyun OU, Bin CHEN, Tri Aryono HADI, SUHARSONO, Wentao NIU, Yustian Rovi ALFIANSAH
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1291-4
Bacterial diseases affecting corals pose an enormous threat to the health of coral reefs. The relationship between certain bacterial species and coral diseases remain largely unknown. Pigment abnormalities are common in Porites lutea. Here we used Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyze the bacterial communities associated with healthy P. lutea and P. lutea with pigment abnormalities. We observed an increase of alpha diversity of the bacterial community of P. lutea with pigment abnormalities, relative to healthy corals. We then identified changes in the abundance of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between pigmented and healthy corals. We were able to identify eight OTUs associated with pigment abnormalities, which are possibly the causative agents of pigment abnormalities.
key words: Porites lutea, pigment abnormalities, next-generation sequencing, 16S rRNA, bacterial diversity
The B/Ca and Cd/Ca of a subsurface-dwelling foraminifera Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean: implications for the subsurface carbonate chemistry estimation
Haowen DANG, Tingting WANG, Peijun QIAO, Franck BASSINOT, Zhimin JIAN
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1406-6
Pulleniatina obliquiloculata shells from 16 core-top samples from the tropical Indo-Pacific Oceans are analyzed for the ratios of boron and cadmium to calcium (B/Ca and Cd/Ca). The B/Ca ratios show a very weak positive relationship with \begin{document}$\left[ {{\rm{B}}\left( {{\rm{OH}}} \right)_4^ - } \right]$\end{document} and the dissolved carbonate species at the apparent calcification depth of P. obliquiloculata. The boron partition coefficients (KD) between P. obliquiloculata B/Ca and seawater \begin{document}$\left[ {{\rm{B}}\left( {{\rm{OH}}} \right)_4^ - } \right]/\left[ {{\rm{HCO}}_3^ - } \right]$\end{document} distribute around 1.1×10-3–1.3×10-3 with a mean value of (1.19±0.12)×10-3, and are significantly related to the nutrient concentration, especially phosphate. The lack of any clear correlation between the P. obliquiloculata B/Ca and seawater carbonate chemical parameters suggests that the physiochemical controls on boron incorporation are masked by the complexity of natural seawater condition. But the significant dependence of KD on nutrient may likely be explained by a nutrient related growth-rate effect. Cd/Ca of P. obliquiloculata shows significant correlation with seawater phosphate concentration, and its partition coefficients (DCd) are significantly related to temperature. A first-principle methodology of P. obliquiloculata B/Ca is applied, with the aid of Cd/Ca as a phosphate proxy and a constraint on KD, to estimating sea water carbonate chemistry (e.g., pH). The results are fairly promising and allow us to propose the possibility to apply the combination of B/Ca and Cd/Ca proxies (and also Mg/Ca and δ18O for estimating temperature and salinity) for the paleo-reconstruction of seawater carbonate chemistry.
key words: Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, B/Ca, Cd/Ca, paleo-pH estimation
Morphological characteristics and DNA barcoding of Pampus echinogaster (Basilewsky, 1855)
Yuan LI, Yan ZHANG, Tianxiang GAO, Zhiqiang HAN, Longshan LIN, Xiumei ZHANG
doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1124-x
The morphological similarities of Pampus fishes have led to considerable confusion in species-level identification, and no accurate information on neotype or DNA barcoding of Pampus echinogaster is available. Two hundred and seven specimens of P. echinogaster were collected from the coastal waters of Dandong, Dongying, Qingdao, Nantong, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Changle, Taiwan, and Wakayama (Japan), from June 2010 to April 2013. The diagnostic characteristics of P. echinogaster are as follows: dorsal fin VIII-XI-43–51, anal fin V-VIII-43–49, pectoral fin 22–27, caudal fin 19–22, pelvic fin absent; first gill rakers sparse, slender (pointed), 3–4+12–16=15–20; vertebrae 39–41; transverse occipital canal on top of head moderately small, wavy ridges not reaching upper origin of pectoral fin; ventral branch of lateral line canal spare, shorter than dorsal branch of lateral line canal. By combining congener sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from GenBank, two absolute groups were detected among all specimens, which further indicated that two valid species were present based on genetic differences in amino acid sequences and the distance between the groups. The sequences of Group 1 can be regarded as DNA barcoding of P. echinogaster. The correct morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of P. echinogaster are presented here to provide a guarantee for efficient and accurate studies, a theoretical basis for classification, and enable appropriate fishery management and conservation strategies for the genus Pampus in the future.
key words: morphological characteristics, DNA barcoding, Pampus echinogaster, genetic differentiation, transverse occipital canal
The response of spring phytoplankton assemblage to diluted water and upwelling in the eutrophic Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary
Shuqun SONG, Zhao LI, Caiwen LI, Zhiming YU
doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1094-z
A comprehensive study on the phytoplankton standing stocks, species composition and dominant species in the eutrophic Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary (CE) was conducted to reveal the response of phytoplankton assemblage to Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and upwelling in the spring. Phytoplankton presented peak standing stocks (13.03 μg/L of chlorophyll a, 984.5×103 cells/L of phytoplankton abundance) along the surface isohaline of 25. Sixty-six species in 41 genera of Bacillariophyta and 33 species in 19 genera of Pyrrophyta were identified, as well as 5 species in Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta. Karenia mikimotoi was the most dominant species, followed by Prorocentrum dentatum, Paralia sulcata, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima and Skeletonema costatum. A bloom of K. mikimotoi was observed in the stratified stations, where the water was characterized by low nitrate, low phosphate, low turbidity, and specific ranges of temperature (18–22 °C) and salinity (27–32). K. mikimotoi and P. dentatum accumulated densely in the upper layers along the isohaline of 25. S. costatum was distributed in the west of the isohaline of 20. Benthonic P. sulcata presented high abundance near the bottom, while spread upward at upwelling stations. CDW resulted in overt gradients of salinity, turbidity and nutritional condition, determining the spatial distribution of phytoplankton species. The restricted upwelling resulted in the upward transport of P. sulcata and exclusion of S. costatum, K. mikimotoi and P. dentatum. The results suggested that CDW and upwelling were of importance in regulating the structure and distribution of phytoplankton assemblage in the CE and the East China Sea.
key words: phytoplankton, species composition, algal bloom, upwelling, estuary
Effects of nutrient limitations on three species of zooplankton
Lei CHEN, Chaolun LI, Konglin ZHOU, Yongqiang SHI, Mengtan LIU
doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1122-z
Nutrient imbalance—a mismatch in nutrient ratios between the available food supply and the demands of consumers—has the potential to be transported up food chains, exposing zooplankton to nutrient limitations. In this study, the response of Calanus sinicus (copepod), Moina mongolica (cladocera), and Brachionus plicatilis (rotifer) to nutrient-limited (no-limited, P-limited, and N-limited) food were evaluated from the perspective of growth, reproduction, and stoichiometric homoeostasis. The results indicated that the growth of three species was suppressed under nutrient-limited (especially P-limited) conditions. However, the effect of nutrient limitations on their reproduction was species-specific. For C. sinicus, the dietary UFA (unsaturated fatty acid) as a major phospholipid component affected their egg production and total FA supporting energy promoted the hatchability of eggs. Furthermore, excess carbon in the diet promoted egg production but reduced hatching success. For M. mongolica, nutritional (P and UFA) and energy (total FA) support affected their fecundity. B. plicatilis fecundity exhibited the same pattern of growth (no-limited>N-limited>P-limited). In terms of stoichiometric homeostasis,B. plicatilis’s elemental compositions were less likely to be affected by nutrient limitations than M. mongolica. We suggest that the effects of nutrient imbalances could potentially become an evolutionary force affecting ecosystem structure and stability in eutrophic waters.
key words: zooplankton, nutrient, growth, reproduction, stoichiometric homoeostasis

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