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Distribution of green algae micro-propagules and their function in the formation of the green tides in the coast of Qinhuangdao, the Bohai Sea, China
Hongbin Han, Wei Song, Zongling Wang, Dewen Ding, Chao Yuan, Xuelei Zhang, Yan Li
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1278-1
Since 2015, a novel green tide has been recurring in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao at the western coast of the Bohai Sea in China, threatening the environment and ecosystem of the Beidaihe seaside holiday resort along the coast. Micro-propagules of the green algae including gametes, spores, micro-germlings and micro-vegetative fragments play an important role in the formation of green tides. They serve as a " seed source” of green macroalgae, and their distributions could reflect and influence the " algae source” of green tides. In this study, monthly surveys in the inshore and offshore areas of the Qinhuangdao coast were conducted from April to September 2016 and in January 2017 to investigate the tempo-spatial distribution patterns and the biomass variations of the green algae micro-propagules. The obtained results show that micro-propagules were mainly distributed in the inshore areas with a significantly decreasing abundance towards offshore areas. Their biomass was highest in July and August, and lowest in winter. The areas that were affected by the green tides showed a remarkably higher abundance of micro-propagules compared to other areas. These micro-propagules could serve as the " seed” source of green tides. Their distribution patterns indicate that the green tide in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao originated locally.
key words: green tides, micro-propagules, macroalgae, Qinhuangdao, Bohai Sea
Morphological studies of six free-living spirotrichean ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) with three new records from the coastal South China Sea
Xumiao CHEN, Kuidong XU
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1304-3
The living morphology and infraciliature of six spirotrichous ciliates collected from the coastal South China Sea were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. These are Euplotes woodruffi Gaw, 1939, Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Song and Wilbert, 1997, Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013, Protogastrostyla pulchra (Perejaslawzewa, 1886) Gong et al., 2007, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata (Kahl, 1932) Song and Warren, 2000, and Pseudokahliella marina (Foissner et al., 1982) Berger et al., 1985. Among these, Protogastrostyla pulchra, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata and Pseudokahliella marina are reported from the South China Sea for the first time, which manifest obvious differences apart from other Chinese populations. As new contribution, the detailed description of isolates from mangrove habitat of E. woodruffi andH. enigmatica, and aquaculture pond isolate of N. flavicana, are present.
key words: South China Sea, new record, ciliates, Spirotrichea, taxonomy

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