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Family-level diversity of extracellular proteases of sedimentary bacteria from the South China Sea
Jinyu Yang, Yangyang Feng, Xiulan Chen, Binbin Xie, Yuzhong Zhang, Mei Shi, Xiying Zhang
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1391-9
Protease-producing bacteria and their extracellular proteases are key players in degrading organic nitrogen to drive marine nitrogen cycling and yet knowledge on both of them is still very limited. This study screened protease-producing bacteria from the South China Sea sediments and analyzed the diversity of their extracellular proteases at the family level through N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that all screened protease-producing bacteria belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria and most of them were affiliated with different genera within the orders Alteromonadales and Vibrionales. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis for fourteen extracellular proteases from fourteen screened bacterial strains revealed that all these proteases belonged to the M4 family of metalloproteases or the S8 family of serine proteases. This study presents new details on taxa of marine sedimentary protease-producing bacteria and types of their extracellular proteases, which will help to comprehensively understand the process and mechanism of the microbial enzymatic degradation of marine sedimentary organic nitrogen.
key words: protease-producing bacteria, diversity, extracellular proteases, protease families, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, South China Sea
Morphological studies of six free-living spirotrichean ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) with three new records from the coastal South China Sea
Xumiao CHEN, Kuidong XU
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1304-3
The living morphology and infraciliature of six spirotrichous ciliates collected from the coastal South China Sea were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. These are Euplotes woodruffi Gaw, 1939, Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Song and Wilbert, 1997, Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013, Protogastrostyla pulchra (Perejaslawzewa, 1886) Gong et al., 2007, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata (Kahl, 1932) Song and Warren, 2000, and Pseudokahliella marina (Foissner et al., 1982) Berger et al., 1985. Among these, Protogastrostyla pulchra, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata and Pseudokahliella marina are reported from the South China Sea for the first time, which manifest obvious differences apart from other Chinese populations. As new contribution, the detailed description of isolates from mangrove habitat of E. woodruffi andH. enigmatica, and aquaculture pond isolate of N. flavicana, are present.
key words: South China Sea, new record, ciliates, Spirotrichea, taxonomy
Wave prediction in a port using a fully nonlinear Boussinesq wave model
Young-Kwang Choi, Seung-Nam Seo, Jin-Yong Choi, Fengyan Shi, Kwang-Soon Park
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1456-2
A wave forecasting system using FUNWAVE-TVD which is based on the fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations by Chen (2006) was developed to provide an accurate wave prediction in the Port of Busan, South Korea. This system is linked to the Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) developed by Park et al. (2015). The computational domain covers a region of 9.6 km×7.0 km with a grid size of 2 m in both directions, which is sufficient to resolve short waves and dominant sea states. The total number of grid points exceeds 16 millions, making the model computational expensive. To provide real-time forecasting, an interpolation method, which is based on pre-calculated results of FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN forecasting results at the FUNWAVE-TVD offshore boundary, was used. A total of 45 cases were pre-calculated, which took 71 days on 924 computational cores of a Linux cluster system. Wind wave generation and propagation from the deep water were computed using the SWAN in KOOS. SWAN results provided a boundary condition for the FUNWAVE-TVD forecasting system. To verify the model, wave observations were conducted at three locations inside the port in a time period of more than 7 months. A model/model comparison between FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN was also carried out. It is found that, FUNWAVE-TVD improves the forecasting results significantly compared to SWAN which underestimates wave heights in sheltered areas due to incorrect physical mechanism of wave diffraction, as well as large wave heights caused by wave reflections inside the port.
key words: real-time wave forecasting, FUNWAVE-TVD, SWAN, KOOS, wave observations, wave diffraction

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