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Distribution of green algae micro-propagules and their function in the formation of the green tides in the coast of Qinhuangdao, the Bohai Sea, China
Hongbin Han, Wei Song, Zongling Wang, Dewen Ding, Chao Yuan, Xuelei Zhang, Yan Li
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1278-1
Since 2015, a novel green tide has been recurring in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao at the western coast of the Bohai Sea in China, threatening the environment and ecosystem of the Beidaihe seaside holiday resort along the coast. Micro-propagules of the green algae including gametes, spores, micro-germlings and micro-vegetative fragments play an important role in the formation of green tides. They serve as a " seed source” of green macroalgae, and their distributions could reflect and influence the " algae source” of green tides. In this study, monthly surveys in the inshore and offshore areas of the Qinhuangdao coast were conducted from April to September 2016 and in January 2017 to investigate the tempo-spatial distribution patterns and the biomass variations of the green algae micro-propagules. The obtained results show that micro-propagules were mainly distributed in the inshore areas with a significantly decreasing abundance towards offshore areas. Their biomass was highest in July and August, and lowest in winter. The areas that were affected by the green tides showed a remarkably higher abundance of micro-propagules compared to other areas. These micro-propagules could serve as the " seed” source of green tides. Their distribution patterns indicate that the green tide in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao originated locally.
key words: green tides, micro-propagules, macroalgae, Qinhuangdao, Bohai Sea
Photosynthetic physiologies of phytoplankton in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during the spring inter-monsoon
Chao Yuan, Zongjun Xu, Xuelei Zhang, Qinsheng Wei, Huiwu Wang, Zongling Wang
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1218-0
Phytoplankton physiologies are dynamic and have sensitive responses to the ambient environment. In this paper, we examine photosynthetic physiologies of phytoplankton communities with Phyto-PAM in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during the spring inter-monsoon. Environmental parameters were measured to investigate the coupling between phytoplankton photosynthetic physiologies and their habitats. During the cruise, the water column was highly stratified. The mixed layer extended to about 75 m and was characterized by high temperature (>28°C) and low nutrient level. The Fv/Fm values and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations were lower at the surface, as consequences of nutrient depletion and photo-inhibition. Subsurface Chl a maximum (SCM) occurred between 75 and 100 m, and had the highest Fv/Fm values. The formation of SCM was a balance between nutrient availability and light limitation. The SCM may contribute significantly to pelagic food web and primary production in the water column. Phytoplankton in different layers encountered different light, trophic and hydrographic dynamics and evolved distinct photosynthetic characteristics. Despite of co-limitation of nutrient limitation and photo-inhibition, phytoplankton in the surface layer showed their acclimation to high irradiance, had lower light utilization efficiencies (α: 0.061±0.032) and could exploit a wide range of light irradiance. Whereas, phytoplankton in the SCM layers presented the highest light utilization efficiencies (α: 0.146±0.48), which guaranteed higher photosynthetic capacities under low light level. These results provide insights into phytoplankton photo-adaption strategies in this less explored region.
key words: Fv/Fm, rapid light curves, photosynthetic physiologies, eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

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