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Roles of fishing and climate change in long-term fish species succession and population dynamics in the outer Beibu Gulf, South China Sea
Xuehui Wang, Yongsong Qiu, Feiyan Du, Weida Liu, Dianrong Sun, Xiao Chen, Weiwen Yuan, Yong Chen
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1484-5
A prevailing, controversial hypothesis is that fishing pressure has played a greater role than climatic and environmental drivers, in changing fish species succession and biomass fluctuation in the South China Sea (SCS). Based on otter trawl survey data from 1959 to 2010 in the outer Beibu Gulf (OBG), northern SCS, large seasonal and interannual variation is reported for fish species composition, the proportional abundances of dominant taxa, and fish biomass. Generalized additive models are developed to quantify relationships between fish biomass and the external factors of fishing pressure and climate change. Fishing pressure proved to be the main driver of sharp declines in demersal fish stocks, with high-value species being replaced by low-value ones over time. Abrupt decreases in fish biomass during the years of 1993 and 1998 correspond to El Niño events, with climate change possibly the main driver of proportional representation of pelagic species in fisheries trawl catch. The need to differentiate impacts of fishing and environmental drivers on fish species with different life history strategies is stressed to better understand fish community dynamics.
key words: fish species succession, biomass fluctuation, fishing effect, climate influence, Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea
Ontogenetic difference of beak elemental concentration and its possible application in migration reconstruction for Ommastrephes bartramii in the North Pacific Ocean
Zhou Fang, Bilin Liu, Xinjun Chen, Yong Chen
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1431-5
The migration route of oceanic squid provides critical information for us to understand their spatial and temporal variations. Mark-recapture and electronic tags tend to be problematic during processing. Cephalopod hard structures such as the beak, containing abundant ecological information with stable morphology and statolith-like sequences of growth increments, may provide information for studying spatio-temporal distribution. In this study, we developed a method, which is based on elemental concentration of beaks at different ontogenetic stages and sampling locations, to reconstruct the squid migration route. We applied this method to Ommastrephes bartramii in the North Pacific Ocean. Nine trace elements were detected in the rostrum sagittal sections (RSS) of the beak using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). For those elements, significant differences were found between the different ontogenetic stages for phosphorus (P), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Sodium (Na), P and Zn were chosen as indicators of sea surface temperature (SST) and a regression model was estimated. The high probability of occurrence in a particular area represented the possible optimal squid location based on a Bayesian model. A reconstructed migration route in this study, combining all the locations at different ontogenetic stages, was consistent with that hypothesized in previous studies. This study demonstrates that the beak can provide useful information for identifying the migration routes of oceanic squid.
key words: Ommastrephes bartramii, beak, trace element, ontogenetic stage, migration route
Morphological studies of six free-living spirotrichean ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) with three new records from the coastal South China Sea
Xumiao CHEN, Kuidong XU
doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1304-3
The living morphology and infraciliature of six spirotrichous ciliates collected from the coastal South China Sea were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. These are Euplotes woodruffi Gaw, 1939, Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Song and Wilbert, 1997, Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013, Protogastrostyla pulchra (Perejaslawzewa, 1886) Gong et al., 2007, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata (Kahl, 1932) Song and Warren, 2000, and Pseudokahliella marina (Foissner et al., 1982) Berger et al., 1985. Among these, Protogastrostyla pulchra, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata and Pseudokahliella marina are reported from the South China Sea for the first time, which manifest obvious differences apart from other Chinese populations. As new contribution, the detailed description of isolates from mangrove habitat of E. woodruffi andH. enigmatica, and aquaculture pond isolate of N. flavicana, are present.
key words: South China Sea, new record, ciliates, Spirotrichea, taxonomy
Wave prediction in a port using a fully nonlinear Boussinesq wave model
Young-Kwang Choi, Seung-Nam Seo, Jin-Yong Choi, Fengyan Shi, Kwang-Soon Park
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1456-2
A wave forecasting system using FUNWAVE-TVD which is based on the fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations by Chen (2006) was developed to provide an accurate wave prediction in the Port of Busan, South Korea. This system is linked to the Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) developed by Park et al. (2015). The computational domain covers a region of 9.6 km×7.0 km with a grid size of 2 m in both directions, which is sufficient to resolve short waves and dominant sea states. The total number of grid points exceeds 16 millions, making the model computational expensive. To provide real-time forecasting, an interpolation method, which is based on pre-calculated results of FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN forecasting results at the FUNWAVE-TVD offshore boundary, was used. A total of 45 cases were pre-calculated, which took 71 days on 924 computational cores of a Linux cluster system. Wind wave generation and propagation from the deep water were computed using the SWAN in KOOS. SWAN results provided a boundary condition for the FUNWAVE-TVD forecasting system. To verify the model, wave observations were conducted at three locations inside the port in a time period of more than 7 months. A model/model comparison between FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN was also carried out. It is found that, FUNWAVE-TVD improves the forecasting results significantly compared to SWAN which underestimates wave heights in sheltered areas due to incorrect physical mechanism of wave diffraction, as well as large wave heights caused by wave reflections inside the port.
key words: real-time wave forecasting, FUNWAVE-TVD, SWAN, KOOS, wave observations, wave diffraction

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