The morphological similarities of Pampus fishes have led to considerable confusion in species-level identification, and no accurate information on neotype or DNA barcoding of Pampus echinogaster is available. Two hundred and seven specimens of P. echinogaster were collected from the coastal waters of Dandong, Dongying, Qingdao, Nantong, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Changle, Taiwan, and Wakayama (Japan), from June 2010 to April 2013. The diagnostic characteristics of P. echinogaster are as follows: dorsal fin VIII-XI-43–51, anal fin V-VIII-43–49, pectoral fin 22–27, caudal fin 19–22, pelvic fin absent; first gill rakers sparse, slender (pointed), 3–4+12–16=15–20; vertebrae 39–41; transverse occipital canal on top of head moderately small, wavy ridges not reaching upper origin of pectoral fin; ventral branch of lateral line canal spare, shorter than dorsal branch of lateral line canal. By combining congener sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from GenBank, two absolute groups were detected among all specimens, which further indicated that two valid species were present based on genetic differences in amino acid sequences and the distance between the groups. The sequences of Group 1 can be regarded as DNA barcoding of P. echinogaster. The correct morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of P. echinogaster are presented here to provide a guarantee for efficient and accurate studies, a theoretical basis for classification, and enable appropriate fishery management and conservation strategies for the genus Pampus in the future.