利用活体观察和蛋白银染色技术对采自中国南海近岸的六种旋唇类纤毛虫：伍氏游仆虫Euplotes woodruffi Gaw，1939、缩颈半腹柱虫Hemigastrostyla enigmatica（Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis，1986） Song and Wilbert，1997、黄色新尾柱虫Neourostylopsis flavicana（Wang et al.，2011） Chen et al.，2013、美丽原腹柱虫Protogastrostyla pulchra（Perejaslawzewa，1886） Gong et al.，2007、膜泡伪小双虫Pseudoamphisiella alveolata（Kahl，1932） Song and Warren，2000和海洋伪卡尔虫Pseudokahliella marina（Foissner et al.，1982） Berger et al.，1985等进行活体形态特征和纤毛图式的研究。其中，美丽原腹柱虫、膜泡伪小双虫和海洋伪卡尔虫均为中国南海的新纪录，形态特征上与中国其他种群存在不同程度的差别。此外，对来自红树林生境的伍氏游仆虫和缩颈半腹柱虫，以及来自养殖水体的黄色新尾柱虫进行了详细的形态特征描述。
The complete small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene sequence of a marine ciliate,Dysteria derouxi Gong and Song,2004,was determined to be of 1 708 nucleotides.The phylogenetic position of this species within the class Phyllopharyngea was deduced using distance matrix,maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods.Dysteria derouxi,together with other available ciliates of the class Phyllopharyngea,forms a monophyletic clade with strong bootstrap support in the distance matrix,maximum parsimony and likelihood tree construction methods,while the dysterids are,as a monophyletic group,phylogenetically close to the clade of chlamydodontids[values of 100% LS(least-squares),100% NJ(neighbor-joining)].In addition,the trees indicate that dysteriids may be a higher or specialized group within the class,which corresponds well to the morphology and infraciliature.
A previous study (Song.2004.Geophys Res Lett,31(15):L15302) of the second-order solutions for random interfacial waves is extended in a constant depth,two-layer fluid system with a rigid lid is extended into a more general case of two-layer fluid with a top free surface.The rigid boundary condition on the upper surface is replaced by the kinematical and dynamical boundary conditions of a free surface,and the equations describing the random displacements of free surface,density-interface and the associated velocity potentials in the two-layer fluid are solved to the second order using the same expansion technology as that of Song (2004.Geophys Res Lett,31 (15):L15302).The results show that the interface and the surface will oscillate synchronously,and the wave fields to the first-order both at the free surface and at the density-interface are made up of a linear superposition of many waves with different amplitudes,wave numbers and frequencies.The second-order solutions describe the second-order wave-wave interactions of the surface wave components,the interface wave components and among the surface and the interface wave components.The extended solutions also include special cases obtained by Thorpe for progressive interfacial waves (Thorpe.1968a.Trans R Soc London,263A:563~614) and standing interfacial waves (Thorpe.1968b.J Fluid Mech,32:489~528) for the two-layer fluid with a top free surface.Moreover,the solutions reduce to those derived for random surface waves by Sharma and Dean (1979.Ocean Engineering Rep 20) ifthe density of the upper layer is much smaller than that of the lower layer.
In the present paper, by introducing the effective wave elevation, we transform the extended elliptic mild-slope equation with bottom friction, wave breaking and steep or rapidly varying bottom topography to the simplest time-dependent hyperbolic equation. Based on this equation and the empirical nonlinear amplitude dispersion relation proposed by Li et al. (2003), the numerical scheme is established. Error analysis by Taylor expansion method shows that the numerical stability of the present model succeeds the merits in Song et al. (2007)'s model because of the introduced dissipation terms. For the purpose of verifying its performance on wave nonlinearity, rapidly varying topography and wave breaking, the present model is applied to study:(1) wave refraction and diffraction over a submerged elliptic shoal on a slope (Berkhoff et al., 1982); (2) Bragg reflection of monochromatic waves from the sinusoidal ripples (Davies and Heathershaw, 1985); (3) wave transformation near a shore attached breakwater (Watanabe and Maruyama, 1986). Comparisons of the numerical solutions with the experimental or theoretical ones or with those of other models (REF/DIF model and FUNWAVE model) show good results, which indicate that the present model is capable of giving favorably predictions of wave refraction, diffraction, reflection, shoaling, bottom friction, breaking energy dissipation and weak nonlinearity in the near shore zone.