This paper reviews the current achievements of the China Argo project. It considers aspects of both the construction of the Argo observing array, float technology, and the quality control and sharing of its data. The developments of associated data products and data applications for use in the fields of ocean, atmosphere, and climate research are discussed, particularly those related to tropical cyclones (typhoons), ocean circulation, mesoscale eddies, turbulence, oceanic heat/salt storage and transportation, water masses, and operational oceanic/atmospheric/climatic forecasts and predictions. Finally, the challenges and opportunities involved in the long-term maintenance and sustained development of the China Argo ocean observation network are outlined. Discussion also focuses on the necessity for increasing the number of floats in the Indian Ocean and for expanding the regional Argo observation network in the South China Sea, together with the importance of promoting the use of Argo data by the maritime countries of Southeast Asia and India.