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Nitrogen uptake regime regulated by ice melting during austral summer in the Prydz Bay, Antarctica
Run Zhang, Qiang Ma, Min Chen, Minfang Zheng, Jianping Cao, Yusheng Qiu
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1434-2
Using a combination of stable isotope (15N) and radionuclide (226Ra) analyses, we examine possible controls on the interactions between melting ice and the uptake of nitrogen in the Prydz Bay during the 2006 austral summer. We find that specific rates of uptake for nitrate and ammonium correlate positively to their concentrations, thus suggesting a substrate effect. In the study area, we observe that regions along open, oceanic water have high f-ratios (nitrate uptake/nitrate+ammonium uptake), while areas near the Amery Ice Shelf have significantly low f-ratios. Further analysis reveals a negative correlation between the f-ratio and the melt water fraction, thus implying that the melting of ice plays an essential role in regulating pelagic N dynamics in the Southern Ocean (SO). Stratification, produced by melting ice, should profoundly affect the efficiency of the SO’s biological pump and consequently affect the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Results presented in this study add information to an already significant base of understanding of the controls on pelagic C and N dynamics in the SO. This provides unique insights for either interpreting past changes in geologic records or for predicting future climate change trends.
key words: nitrogen uptake regime, ice melting, Prydz Bay, Antarctica
The September 16, 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: characteristics of tsunami wave from near-field to far-field
Zhiyuan REN, Ye YUAN, Peitao WANG, Tingting FAN, Juncheng WANG, Jingming HOU
doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1005-3
On September 16, 2015, an earthquake with magnitude ofMw 8.3 occurred 46 km offshore from Illapel, Chile, generating a 4.4-m local tsunami measured at Coquimbo. In this study, the characteristics of tsunami are presented by a combination of analysis of observations and numerical simulation based on sources of USGS and NOAA. The records of 16 DART buoys in deep water, ten tidal gauges along coasts of near-field, and ten coastal gauges in the far-field are studied by applying Fourier analyses. The numerical simulation based on nonlinear shallow water equations and nested grids is carried out to provide overall tsunami propagation scenarios, and the results match well with the observations in deep water and but not well in coasts closed to the epicenter. Due to the short distance to the epicenter and the shelf resonance of southern Peru and Chile, the maximum amplitude ranged from 0.1 m to 2 m, except for Coquimbo. In deep water, the maximum amplitude of buoys decayed from 9.8 cm to 0.8 cm, suggesting a centimeter-scale Pacific-wide tsunami, while the governing period was 13–17 min and 32 min. Whereas in the far-field coastal region, the tsunami wave amplified to be around 0.2 m to 0.8 m, mostly as a result of run-up effect and resonance from coast reflection. Although the tsunami was relatively moderate in deep water, it still produced non-negligible tsunami hazards in local region and the coasts of far-field.
key words: 2015 Illapel earthquake, tsunami observation, numerical modeling, far-field, near-field
Upper ocean high resolution regional modeling of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal
Dwivedi Suneet, Mishra Alok Kumar, Srivastava Atul
doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1439-x
In this paper, effort is made to demonstrate the quality of high-resolution regional ocean circulation model in realistically simulating the circulation and variability properties of the northern Indian Ocean (10°S–25°N, 45°–100°E) covering the Arabian Sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BoB). The model run using the open boundary conditions is carried out at 10 km horizontal resolution and highest vertical resolution of 2 m in the upper ocean. The surface and sub-surface structure of hydrographic variables (temperature and salinity) and currents is compared against the observations during 1998–2014 (17 years). In particular, the seasonal variability of the sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and surface currents over the model domain is studied. The high-resolution model’s ability in correct estimation of the spatio-temporal mixed layer depth (MLD) variability of the AS and BoB is also shown. The lowest MLD values are observed during spring (March-April-May) and highest during winter (December-January-February) seasons. The maximum MLD in the AS (BoB) during December to February reaches 150 m (67 m). On the other hand, the minimum MLD in these regions during March-April-May becomes as low as 11–12 m. The influence of wind stress, net heat flux and freshwater flux on the seasonal variability of the MLD is discussed. The physical processes controlling the seasonal cycle of sea surface temperature are investigated by carrying out mixed layer heat budget analysis. It is found that air-sea fluxes play a dominant role in the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature of the northern Indian Ocean and the contribution of horizontal advection, vertical entrainment and diffusion processes is small. The upper ocean zonal and meridional volume transport across different sections in the AS and BoB is also computed. The seasonal variability of the transports is studied in the context of monsoonal currents.
key words: Indian Ocean modeling, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, mixed layer depth, transport

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