Profiles of salinity and temperature were measured in the strait of Hormuz (SH) during the winter of 2012, spring and summer of 2013. To investigate the double diffusion (DD) processes, Turner (TU) angle values are calculated in all the stations in the SH. Different TU angle values correspond to salt fingering (SF), diffusive convection (DC) and stable stratification. The distributions of the two forms of DD were plotted vertically along transects in the eastern, central and western part of the SH, and corresponding DD processes were described. The results show that both SF and DC occurred in most part of the study area. Two different water masses (the Indian Ocean surface water and the Persian Gulf water) were evident at the SH, and SF and DC were evident at the interface of two water masses. Due to evaporation, SF occurred in the surface layer of most Stations throughout the year. In the eastern part of the SH, occurrences of DC were more feasible in wintertime. SF was the main phenomenon at the end of hot season. For central part, SF occurred throughout the year in water column. In the western part, water column was stable in summer and DC happened in most part of water column in winter.
Codium, one of the largest marine green algal genera, is difficult to delimit species boundary accurately based on morphological identification only. DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for discriminating species of seaweeds. The plastid elongation factor TU (tufA) is considered as maker to perform DNA barcoding of green algal species than rbcL gene due to universality and rapid evolution rate. We conducted DNA barcoding application to Codium specimens from the Jeju Island, Korea to overcome the limit of morphological identification and to confirm the species diversity. As a result of applying tufA marker, we newly generated fifty-five tufA barcodes to resolve eight species. TufA marker exhibited 6.1%-21.8% interspecific divergences, wider than the gap of rbcL exon 1, 3.5%-11.5%. Molecular analysis of rbcL exon 1 sequences of Codium revealed eight distinct species like tufA analysis separated in five phylogenetic groups. DNA barcoding of the genus Codium using tufA marker is more helpful to overcome the limit of morphological identification, and this is more potential to reveal cryptic species and to resolve the relationships among subspecies than rbcL analysis alone. The complement of tufA barcoding and rbcL analyses including morphology for the genus Codium in the northwestern Pacific will give much more reliable achievement for discovering species diversity and resolving the phylogenetic relationships.
The flow field over Hainan Island and the Leizhou Peninsula in summer and winter is discussed with three-dimensional mesoscale model developed in the University of Virginia and using the representative meteorological data of January and July. Simulation results indicate that the local weather characteristics over the Hainan Island are distinctly influenced by the Wuzhi Mountain terrain. The cloudy or rainfall weather over the northeast of the Wuzhi Mountain occurs easily, under proper large-scale conditions of flow, temperature and humidity. while west wind prevails. The overcast or rainfall weather is often induced by strong convection in the afternoon over west of the Hainan Island under easterly prevailing wind.