Two new species (Nitzschia sinensis Liu, sp.nov.and Podosira granulata Liu, sp.nov.) and one new variety (Xanthiopyxis microspinosa var.ellipticus Liu, var.nov.) collected from the urface sediments off the southern Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea are described and a list of diatoms from the surface sediments in the survey area and some new records in China are attached.
Combined refraction and diffraction models in the form of linear parabolic approximation are derived through smallparameter method.More strictly theoretical basis and more accuracy in the models than Lozano's (1980) are obtained.Some theoretical defects in Liu's model (1985) with consideration of current are not only found but also eliminated.More strict and accurate models are, therefore, presented in this paper. The calculation results and analysis in applying the models to actual wave field with consideration of bottom friction will be given in the following paper.
The one-dimensional Kraus-Tumer mixed layer model improved by Liu is developed to consider the effect of salinity and the equations of temperature and salinity under the mixed layer. On this basis, the processes of growth and death of surface layer temperature inversion is numerically simulated under different environmental parameters. At the same time, the physical mechanism is preliminarily discussed combining the observations at the station of TOGA-COARE 0°N, 156°E. The results indicate that temperature inversion sensitively depends on the mixed layer depth, sea surface wind speed and solar shortwave radiation, etc., and appropriately meteorological and hydrological conditions often lead to the similarly periodical occurrence of this inversion phenomenon.
Based on the data and method offered by Liu et al. (2009), the direct wind and Stokes drift-induced energy inputs into the Ekman layer within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) area are reestimated since the results of the former have been proved to be underestimated. And the result shows that the total rate of energy input into the Ekman-Stokes layer within the ACC area is 852.41 GW, including 649.75 GW of direct wind energy input (76%) and 202.66 GW of Stoke drift-induced energy input (24%). Total increased energy input, due to wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing added to the classical Ekman model, is 52.05 GW, accounting for 6.5% of the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. The long-term variability of direct wind and Stokes drift-induced energy inputs into the Ekman layer within the ACC is also investigated, and the result shows that the Stokes drift hinders the decadal increasing trend of direct wind energy input. Meanwhile, there is a period of 4-5 a in the energy spectrums, as same as the Antarctic circumpolar wave.