A few species in the genus Grateloupia (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) have been investigated in detail with respect to morphological observations and molecular analyses. In this study, the authors document the vegetative and reproductive structures of two new species of Grateloupia, G. dalianensis H.W.Wang et D.Zhao, sp.nov. and G. yinggehaiensis H.W.Wang et R.X.Luan, sp.nov. They both have the morphological character that carpogonial ampullae and auxiliary cell ampullae are the simple Grateloupia-type. The two species can be distinguished from other species of the genus by their distinctive morphological features respectively. Based on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) gene sequences, the phylogenetic tree obtained in the study indicated that they are both embedded within the Grateloupia clade. G. dalianensis clusters a subclade with G. asiatica, and G. yinggehaiensis forms a single monophyletic subclade with G. hawaiiana.
Distribution and abundance of Pseudeuphausia sinica off the Changjiang River Estuary (30°00'-32°00'N, 122°00'-123°30'E), the East China Sea were studied in relation to environmental features associated with the regional warming. P. sinica is a subtropical species. Off the Changjiang River Estuary, its abundance reached maximum in summer. To examine spatial and temporal changes of P. sinica off the Changjiang River Estuary, the authors have combined all available sampling data in 1979, 1981, and 2000-2007. This database shows that a significant increase in abundances of P. sinica was observed in spring of 2000-2007 as compared with 1979, 1981. The abundance of P. sinica increased from 0.18-0.21 ind./m3 in 1979 and 1981 to 0.68-4.00 ind./m3 in 2000-2007. Accordingly, the sea temperature increased obviously from spring of 1979, 1981 to the 2000s. The authors further found a positive relationship between average surface temperature and average abundance of P. sinica. Regional warming, together with the release of predator induced stress due to a sharp decline in the abundance of its predator (e.g., fishes), were thought to be responsible for the increase in abundance of P. sinica in water off the Changjiang River Estuary.
Based on the morphocytological studies on Planktoreiella,two species of the genus, p. sol Schütt and p. formosa (Qian et Wang) are recorded in China's seas. The renaming of the latter species is based on a careful study on Valdiuella formosa (Schimper ex Karsten) Karsten.
The Hessian matrix,which is formed by the second-order partial derivatives of the cost function with respect to control variables,plays an important role in the procedure of variational data assimilation(VDA),sensitivity analysis,etc.,and it can be obtained by establishing the first-order adjoint(FOA) and the second-order adjoint(SOA) models for direct model.The derivations of the FOA and SOA models of shallow water equations model are given in detail,which is based upon the Crateaux differential of funcFional and the concepts of the adjoint operators in Hilbert space.The result for SOA model of the shallow water equations model is obtained,which improves the theory established in the paper of Wang et al.(1992).
A three-dimensional density field associated with mesoscaie unstable waves generated by the 3-D,primitive-equation model (Wang and Ikeda,1996) is provided to the quasi-geostrophic pressure tendency and ω-equations,and to the (ageostrophic) Q-vector equation.Diagnostic analyses,analogous to the approaches in meteorology:ω-equation and Q-vector method,are for the first time developed to examine the mesoscaie dynamical processes and mechanisms of the unstable waves propagating in the mid-latitude ocean.The weaknesses and strengths of these two diagnostic approaches are evaluated and compared to the model results.The Q-vector method is then recommended to diagnose the vertical motion associated with the mesoscaie dynamics from a hydrographic CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) array,while the quasi-geostrophic equations produce some small-scale features (errors) in the diagnosed fields.
Based on the non-dimensional general function for the thermal structure features presented by S.A.Kitaigorodsky et al. (1963, 1965)[10, 11].this paper tries to establish semi-empirical and semi-theoretical models bfor the thickness of the upper homogeneous layer of the ocean, thermocline intensity and lower oundary depth of thermocline by consecutive observations from 159 stations in the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea and East China Sea in the warm half of the years from 1957 to 1964 and the heat budget at the sea surface computed with the simplified computing formulae proposed by Wang (1983).This model indicates the main factors forming the thermal structure features in the upper layer of the ocean and their function.With the model, one can directly use the sea surface temperature, air temperature and wind speed to compute the thermal feature in the upper layer of the ocean.
利用活体观察和蛋白银染色技术对采自中国南海近岸的六种旋唇类纤毛虫：伍氏游仆虫Euplotes woodruffi Gaw，1939、缩颈半腹柱虫Hemigastrostyla enigmatica（Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis，1986） Song and Wilbert，1997、黄色新尾柱虫Neourostylopsis flavicana（Wang et al.，2011） Chen et al.，2013、美丽原腹柱虫Protogastrostyla pulchra（Perejaslawzewa，1886） Gong et al.，2007、膜泡伪小双虫Pseudoamphisiella alveolata（Kahl，1932） Song and Warren，2000和海洋伪卡尔虫Pseudokahliella marina（Foissner et al.，1982） Berger et al.，1985等进行活体形态特征和纤毛图式的研究。其中，美丽原腹柱虫、膜泡伪小双虫和海洋伪卡尔虫均为中国南海的新纪录，形态特征上与中国其他种群存在不同程度的差别。此外，对来自红树林生境的伍氏游仆虫和缩颈半腹柱虫，以及来自养殖水体的黄色新尾柱虫进行了详细的形态特征描述。