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Lili Xu, Yinyu Liang, Wenjun Xiao, Bingrui Chen. Analysis of the inter-annual variability and southward expansion of red tides in Zhejiang coastal waters from 1981 to 2018[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1741-2
Citation: Lili Xu, Yinyu Liang, Wenjun Xiao, Bingrui Chen. Analysis of the inter-annual variability and southward expansion of red tides in Zhejiang coastal waters from 1981 to 2018[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1741-2

Analysis of the inter-annual variability and southward expansion of red tides in Zhejiang coastal waters from 1981 to 2018

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1741-2
Funds:  The National Basic Research Program of China under contract No. 2016YFC1401900; Open Research Funds of Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Monitoring and Restoration Technologies under contract No. MATHAB201703.
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  • Corresponding author: E-mail: xulili@ecs.mnr.gov.cn
  • Received Date: 2020-09-23
  • Accepted Date: 2020-10-08
  • Available Online: 2021-07-06
  • A time series dataset spanning 39 years (1981 to 2018) on red tide events in Zhejiang coastal waters was used to study the characteristics of inter-annual spatial and temporal variations. A distinct inter-annual pattern characterized by low frequency, explosive growth and fluctuating decline stages was found over the studied time scale. Most red tide events occurred in parallel to the bathymetric contour, and 95.4% were located to the west of the 50-m isobath. Additionally, the high-incidence area of red tides is expanding southward. In this paper, local sea surface temperature (SST), mariculture area and secondary industry growth rate are introduced and identified as the main factors influencing the nutrient and hydrometeorological conditions. A multivariate nonlinear regression equation based on these factors was constructed, and the goodness of fit coefficient was 0.907. The causes of the annual variation and high-frequency area in the southward expansion were quantitatively analyzed based on the proposed regression model. Finally, the results indicated that 68.7% of the annual occurrence variation of red tide was due to the SST and mariculture area, which are the main impact factors; however, secondary industry growth could compensate for the nutrient deficiency caused by the sharp mariculture area reduction and decreased SST. The background nutrient level, which is elevated by coastal economic development, especially secondary industry, is the main determinant of the southward expansion. Although the trend of the southward expansion of high-frequency areas has not changed, the red tide frequency in coastal cities has decreased by half and remained at a stable level after 2010 due to substantial economic restructuring and environmental protection.
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