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Haihan Hu, Jiechen Zhao, Jingkai Ma, Igor Bashmachnikov, Natalia Gnatiuk, Bo Xu, Fengming Hui. The sudden ocean warming and its potential influences on early−frozen landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2326-7
Citation: Haihan Hu, Jiechen Zhao, Jingkai Ma, Igor Bashmachnikov, Natalia Gnatiuk, Bo Xu, Fengming Hui. The sudden ocean warming and its potential influences on early−frozen landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2326-7

The sudden ocean warming and its potential influences on early−frozen landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica

doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2326-7
Funds:  The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 42276251, 42211530033, and 41876212; the Taishan Scholars Program.
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  • The ocean conditions beneath the ice cover play a key role in understanding the sea ice mass balance in the Polar Regions. An integrated high-frequency ice–ocean observation system, including Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) Sensor, and Sea Ice Mass Balance Array (SIMBA), was deployed in the landfast ice region close to the Chinese Zhongshan Station in Antarctica. A sudden ocean warming of 0.14℃ (p < 0.01) was observed beneath early−frozen landfast ice, from (−1.60 ± 0.03)℃ during April 16–19 to (−1.46 ± 0.07)℃ during April 20–23, which is the only significant warming event in the nearly 8-month records. The sudden ocean warming brought a double rise in oceanic heat flux, from (21.7 ± 11.1) W/m2 during April 16–19 to (44.8 ± 21.3) W/m2 during April 20–23, which shifted the original growth phase at the ice bottom, leading to a 2 cm melting, as shown from SIMBA and borehole observations. Simultaneously, the slowdown of ice bottom freezing decreased salt rejection, and the daily trend of observed ocean salinity changed from +0.02/d during April 16–19, to +0.003/d during April 20–23. The potential reasons are increased air temperature due to the transit cyclones and the weakened vertical ocean mixing due to the tide phase transformation from semi-diurnal to diurnal. The high-frequency observations within the ice–ocean boundary layer enhance the comprehensive investigation of the ocean's influence on ice evolution at a daily scale.
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