Optical properties and surface energy flux of spring fast ice in the Arctic

Jialiang Zhu Yilin Liu Xiaoyu Wang Tao Li

Jialiang Zhu, Yilin Liu, Xiaoyu Wang, Tao Li. Optical properties and surface energy flux of spring fast ice in the Arctic[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1828-9
Citation: Jialiang Zhu, Yilin Liu, Xiaoyu Wang, Tao Li. Optical properties and surface energy flux of spring fast ice in the Arctic[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1828-9

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1828-9

Optical properties and surface energy flux of spring fast ice in the Arctic

Funds: The National Major Research High Resolution Sea Ice Model Development Program of China under contract No. 2018YFA0605903; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41776192; the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under contract No. 202165005.
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  • Figure  1.  Study site at Barrow, Alaska.

    Figure  2.  Radiometers used in the observation. a. CNR4, b. Ramses ACC-VIS, and c. PRR800/810.

    Figure  3.  In situ instrumentation on the site.

    Figure  4.  Time series for air temperature (AT) (a), relative humidity (RH) (b), pressure (P) (c), wind speed (WS) (d), and cloudness (e) during the study period.

    Figure  5.  Time series of the incident radiation (a), reflected radiation (b), spectral albedo (c), and integral albedo (d), measured by Ramses ACC-VIS in Barrow.

    Figure  6.  Time series of the incident radiation (a), transmitted radiation (b), spectral transmittance (c), and integral transmittance (d), measured by PRR800/810 in Barrow.

    Figure  7.  Time series of the incident radiation (a), absorbed radiation (b), spectral absorbance (c), and integral absorbance (d), derived from interpolated data from Ramses ACC-VIS and PRR800/810 in Barrow.

    Figure  8.  Variations in radiation and heat flux on the surface of the fast ice, including the incident shortwave Rsd, reflected shortwave Rsu, incident longwave Rld, reflected longwave Rlu, solar radiation at top of the atmosphere S, and albedo (a), net shortwave and longwave radiation (Ns and Nl) (b), and turbulent heat flux (c).

    Figure  9.  Energy budget of fast ice in the spring. From left to right: net shortwave radiation, net longwave radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and heat conduction, with their values marked.

    Figure  10.  Spectrum-independence of the albedo (a) and transmittance (b) from in situ observations and simulations with and without inclusions in the ice. The y-axis on the right in panel b is for the curve without interior inclusions.

    Figure  11.  Upper part of the ice core sampled at the site in Barrow.

    Table  1.   Summary of the weather and sky conditions in Barrow

    TimeDate
    May 10May 11May 12
    00:00partly sunnylow cloudsscattered clouds
    01:00partly sunnymostly cloudyovercast
    02:00broken cloudsovercastpartly sunny
    03:00overcastovercastpartly sunny
    04:00overcastovercastmostly cloudy
    05:00mostly cloudyovercastlow clouds
    06:00light snow, ice foglight rain, overcastbroken clouds
    07:00light snow, ice fogovercastbroken clouds
    08:00light snow, mostly cloudyovercastlow clouds
    09:00light freezing rain, vercastmostly cloudylow clouds
    10:00light rain, mostly cloudypartly sunnyovercast
    11:00more clouds than sunpartly sunnyovercast
    12:00partly sunnymostly cloudyovercast
    13:00partly sunnylight rain, overcastscattered clouds
    14:00partly sunnymostly cloudyscattered clouds
    15:00low cloudsovercastpartly sunny
    16:00low cloudsmore clouds than sunovercast
    17:00low cloudsovercastmostly cloudy
    18:00low cloudspartly sunnylight rain, mostly cloudy
    19:00low cloudsscattered cloudslight snow, mostly cloudy
    20:00low cloudspassing cloudslight snow, mostly cloudy
    21:00low cloudsscattered cloudslight snow, more clouds than sun
    22:00partly sunnypassing cloudslight snow, overcast
    23:00drizzle, low cloudsbroken cloudslight snow, ice fog
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-09
  • 录用日期:  2021-02-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-16

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