An improved optical flow method to estimate Arctic sea ice velocity (winter 2014−2016)

Haili Li Changqing Ke Qinghui Zhu Xiaoyi Shen Mengmeng Li

Haili Li, Changqing Ke, Qinghui Zhu, Xiaoyi Shen, Mengmeng Li. An improved optical flow method to estimate Arctic sea ice velocity (winter 2014−2016)[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1867-2
Citation: Haili Li, Changqing Ke, Qinghui Zhu, Xiaoyi Shen, Mengmeng Li. An improved optical flow method to estimate Arctic sea ice velocity (winter 2014−2016)[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1867-2

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1867-2

An improved optical flow method to estimate Arctic sea ice velocity (winter 2014−2016)

Funds: The National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract Nos 2018YFC1407200 and 2018YFC1407203; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41976212.
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  • Figure  1.  Map of the locations of the nine subregions of the Arctic.

    Figure  2.  n-layer pyramid image construction process (a), and flow chart of the n-layer pyramid HS-OF method (b). The bottom layer (0 layer) represents the original image, and the top layer represents the smallest image. The thin arrows in b indicate the direction of sea ice drift.

    Figure  3.  Spatial distribution of the region where velocity data for buoys in the Arctic Ocean are obtained. The buoys are numbered as nbx with x being 1 to 7.

    Figure  4.  Scatterplots of the data obtained by the HS-OF, 2LPHS-OF and 4LPHS-OF methods versus the buoy data in the u (x) and v (y) directions. a, b and c. HS-OF velocity, 2LPHS-OF velocity and 4LPHS-OF velocity in the u-direction; and d, e and f. HS-OF velocity, 2LPHS-OF velocity and 4LPHS-OF velocity in the v-direction.

    Figure  5.  The daily sea ice velocity in winter from 2014 to 2016 in the u-direction and v-direction, which are obtained from buoys and by the HS-OF, 2LPHS-OF and 4LPHS-OF methods. a, c, e and g. Velocities at the nb2, nb4, nb5 and nb7 position in the u-direction; and b. d, f and h, velocity at the nb2, nb4, nb5 and nb7 position in the v-direction.

    Figure  6.  The daily sea ice velocity in winter from 2014 to 2016 in the u-direction and v-direction, which are obtained from buoys and the OSI SAF and CMEMS dataset. a, c, e and g Velocities at the nb2, nb4, nb5 and nb7 position in the u-direction; and b, d, f and h. velocities at the nb2, nb4, nb5 and nb7 position in the v-direction.

    Figure  7.  Spatial distribution of the sea ice drift velocity on the 1st and 15th days of each month in the Arctic in 2016. The blue box indicates the occurrence of the Arctic cyclone, and the black box indicates the occurrence of the Arctic anticyclone, including the Beaufort Gyre.

    Figure  8.  The monthly sea ice velocity in nine subregions from January to March, 2016.

    Table  1.   Statistics for three sea ice drift datasets

    Data providerNSIDCOSI SAFCMEMS
    SensorAMSR-E, AVHRR, drifting buoys,
    SMMR, SSM/I, SSMIS
    AMSR-2, SSMIS, ASCATAMSR-E, AMSR-2, SSM/I, SSMIS,
    QuickSCAT, ASCAT
    Spatial resolution25 km×25 km62.5 km×62.5 km12.5 km×12.5 km
    MethodMCCCMCCCMCC, model
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Accuracy evaluation of the HS-OF, 2LPHS-OF and 4LPHS-OF methods for the buoy velocity positions (in the u-direction and v-direction) through RMSE, ME, MAE, and P from 2014 to 2016 (winter)

    unb1vnb1
    HS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OFHS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OF
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)4.834.794.884.203.993.96
    ME/(cm·s–1)–1.12 –0.79 –0.76 1.601.371.26
    MAE/(cm·s–1)3.633.633.723.102.972.91
    P0.440.620.580.580.700.71
    unb2vnb2
    HS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OFHS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OF
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)5.575.115.184.464.654.71
    ME/(cm·s–1)–1.95 –1.19 –1.17 0.740.470.35
    MAE/(cm·s–1)4.403.984.003.353.463.43
    P0.790.840.830.520.660.68
    unb3vnb3
    HS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OFHS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OF
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)5.064.234.283.844.675.34
    ME/(cm·s–1)–0.49 –0.29 -0.31 –1.78 –1.04 –0.99
    MAE/(cm·s–1)4.013.313.333.043.503.91
    P0.890.930.920.670.730.69
    unb4vnb4
    HS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OFHS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OF
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)3.864.084.274.904.535.14
    ME/(cm·s–1)–0.29 –0.62 –0.59 2.241.922.03
    MAE/(cm·s–1)3.063.203.323.803.473.84
    P0.640.690.720.640.760.62
    unb5vnb5
    HS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OFHS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OF
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)4.484.404.373.393.393.48
    ME/(cm·s–1)1.571.471.44–1.48 –1.36 –1.33
    MAE/(cm·s–1)3.373.303.272.532.582.62
    P0.340.480.500.300.420.39
    unb6vnb6
    HS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OFHS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OF
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)4.925.258.124.204.676.80
    ME/(cm·s–1)1.411.141.160.610.440.76
    MAE/(cm·s–1)3.693.925.803.343.594.49
    P0.350.440.360.430.520.61
    unb7vnb7
    HS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OFHS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OF
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)4.724.705.305.925.996.17
    ME/(cm·s–1)2.862.372.372.302.422.54
    MAE/(cm·s–1)4.134.044.455.365.425.55
    P0.380.540.520.250.370.33
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Overall accuracy evaluation of the HS-OF, 2LPHS-OF and 4LPHS-OF methods in the u-direction and v-direction through the RMSE, ME, MAE, and P based on buoy velocity from 2014 to 2016 (winter, a total of 1 829 matchup data)

    uv
    HS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OFHS-OF2LPHS-OF4LPHS-OF
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)4.894.765.454.564.705.29
    ME/(cm·s–1)0.190.220.230.540.540.59
    MAE/(cm·s–1)3.743.613.973.443.483.76
    P0.610.700.650.500.600.59
    Note: The bolded values are the 2LPHS-OF volocity.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Accuracy evaluation of the OSI SAF and CMEMS vectors in the u- and v-directions through the RMSE, ME, MAE, and P values based on buoy velocity

    uv
    OSI SAFCMEMSOSI SAFCMEMS
    RMSE/(cm·s–1)6.28 (24%)6.36 (25%)6.98 (33%)5.60 (16%)
    ME/(cm·s–1)0.57 (60%)0.15 (–56%)1.22 (56%)0.35 (–55%)
    MAE/(cm·s–1)4.50 (20%)4.93 (27%)4.73 (26%)4.16 (16%)
    P0.64 (8%)0.87 (–25%)0.43 (41%)0.78 (–29%)
    Note: The values in brackets indicate the percentage improvement of the accuracy indices of the 2LPHS-OF velocity relative to the accuracy indices of the other data.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  5.   Evaluation of the 2LPHS-OF vectors in the u- and v-directions through the RMSE, ME, MAE, and P based on NSIDC velocity data from 2014 to 2016

    RMSE/(cm·s−1)ME/(cm·s−1)MAE/(cm·s−1)P
    u1.900.901.450.62
    v1.990.911.640.80
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  6.   Statistics for sea ice velocity in nine subregions of the Arctic

    RegionMean
    /(cm·s−1)
    SD
    /(cm·s−1)
    speed rate
    /(cm·s−1·d−1)
    Arctic Ocean1.390.70–0.0030
    Canadian Archipelago0.140.08–0.0002
    Bering Sea1.201.260.0050
    Seas of Okhotsk and Japan1.911.260.02501)
    Kara and Barents Sea2.071.10–0.0060
    Greenland Sea1.150.74–0.0030
    Hudson Bay0.770.920.00902)
    Baffin Bay/Labrador Sea1.200.56–0.0010
    Gulf of St. Lawrence0.621.000.0150
    Note: 1) Probability value < 0.01. 2) Probability value < 0.05. Bolded values indicate a speed rate greater than 0.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-18
  • 录用日期:  2021-06-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-03

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