Interannual variability in the sea surface cooling induced by tropical cyclones in the South China Sea

Juan Ouyang Chunhua Qiu Zhenhui Yi Dongxiao Wang Danyi Su Hong Liang Zihao Yang

Juan Ouyang, Chunhua Qiu, Zhenhui Yi, Dongxiao Wang, Danyi Su, Hong Liang, Zihao Yang. Interannual variability in the sea surface cooling induced by tropical cyclones in the South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1870-7
Citation: Juan Ouyang, Chunhua Qiu, Zhenhui Yi, Dongxiao Wang, Danyi Su, Hong Liang, Zihao Yang. Interannual variability in the sea surface cooling induced by tropical cyclones in the South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1870-7

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1870-7

Interannual variability in the sea surface cooling induced by tropical cyclones in the South China Sea

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41976002.
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  • Figure  1.  Tracks of TCs in the SCS from 2006 to 2018.

    Figure  2.  Probabilities of Tropical cyclone (TC) category (a) and radiu (b) in the SCS. 1–6 in a reprecent the tropical depression (TD), tropical storm (TS), super tropical storm (STS), typhoon (T), strong typhoon (ST), and super typhoon (Super T), respectively, classified by wind speed . The TC radiu in b is defined as the longest radiu of 30-knot (~15 m/s) wind speeds.

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of the rotating coordinate system of original (a) and transferred (b) coordinate systems. The red box is the SST response zone. $ x $ and ${y}$ direct eastward and northward, respectively, $ y{'} $ points to the direction of TC translated, and $ x{'} $ is perpendicular to $ y{'} $. The black dot indicate point pi at time i, and the yellow dot indicate the next position pi+1 at time i+1.①,②,③ and ④ represent the first, second, third and forth quadrant, which take the direction of TC as the positive y'-axis.

    Figure  4.  Probability of TC-induced surface cooling (a) and warming (b), and mean $\Delta \mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{T}\mathrm{ }(\mathrm{c})$ and variance of $\Delta\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{T}$ (d).

    Figure  5.  Spatial distributions of mean TC-included sea surface cooling $ \Delta \text{SST} $ from 2006 to 2018.

    Figure  6.  Interannual variability of TC-included sea surface cooling $ \left|{\Delta }\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{T}\right| $ (black) and the Niño 3.4 index (red) (a); the number (black) and translation speed (red) of TCs (b); the mean central pressure (black) and radius (red) of TCs (c); and the pre-TC mixed layer depth (MLD) and pre-TC SST around the TC center (d). The dashed lines are linear regression lines.

    Figure  7.  Relationships between the absolute value of TC-included sea surface cooling ($ \Delta \text{SST} $) and TC central pressure (a), and TC translation speed (b). Error bars indicate the standard deviation of $ \;\left|{\Delta }\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{T}\right| $ at every 5 hPa (a) and every 1 m/s (b).

    Figure  8.  Composite average wind speed (vector) and $ {\Delta }\text{SST} $ (colour scale) (a–c), and composite wind stress curl (d–f). The composite times are separated into El Niño years, La Niña years, and normal years from left to right panels.

    Figure  9.  10–m wind speed anomaly in summer to autumn of 2007 (a), 2010 (b), 2015 (c), and 2016 (d). The wind anomaly was compared to mean wind speed in summer to autumn of 2006–2018. The red lines are tropical cyclone (TC) tracks. The black circles are the anticyclone position.

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-15
  • 录用日期:  2021-06-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-25

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