Two-stage reproduction derived from cells of thallus could directly contribute to seeds for green tidal algal Enteromorpha(Ulva) prolifera/clathrata bloom, with disclosure of their ephemeral trait

Bingxin Huang Lanping Ding Yao Zhang Youxuan Guo Junxia Liang Yanqi Xie Yue Chu

Bingxin Huang, Lanping Ding, Yao Zhang, Youxuan Guo, Junxia Liang, Yanqi Xie, Yue Chu. Two-stage reproduction derived from cells of thallus could directly contribute to seeds for green tidal algal Enteromorpha(Ulva) prolifera/clathrata bloom, with disclosure of their ephemeral trait[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(9): 101-112. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2158-x
Citation: Bingxin Huang, Lanping Ding, Yao Zhang, Youxuan Guo, Junxia Liang, Yanqi Xie, Yue Chu. Two-stage reproduction derived from cells of thallus could directly contribute to seeds for green tidal algal Enteromorpha(Ulva) prolifera/clathrata bloom, with disclosure of their ephemeral trait[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(9): 101-112. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2158-x

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2158-x

Two-stage reproduction derived from cells of thallus could directly contribute to seeds for green tidal algal Enteromorpha(Ulva) prolifera/clathrata bloom, with disclosure of their ephemeral trait

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 31970216 and 31670199.
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    Corresponding author: E-mail: skydlp@tjnu.edu.cn
  • 11Ding Lanping, International Symposium of Advanced Research on Green Tides, May 09–11, 2014, Shanghai, China.
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    11Ding Lanping, International Symposium of Advanced Research on Green Tides, May 09–11, 2014, Shanghai, China.
  • Figure  1.  The somatic cells development process of Enteromorpha clathrata shows the juvenile to maturity in turn.

    Figure  2.  Reproductive cells born and germinate into the seawater under the semi-drying condition (a); the reproductive cells germinated in the adult parent thalli or their remnant (b).

    Figure  3.  Cell reproduction of infantile Enteromorpha prolifera under room temperature. a. The indoor culture tank of infantile E. prolifera. b. The seedlings of E. prolifera (the thallus, short arrow shows the basal rhizoid). c. The part of the seedling unformed reproductive cells, and the reproductive cells formed near the base of the seedlings and remnants of cell walls after released.

    Figure  4.  Adolescent Enteromorpha prolifera with reproductive cells formed and released at 22℃. a. Adolescent thalli (short arrow show the formation and release of reproductive cells at first-order branches); b. Base of the adolescent thalli (short arrows show the holdfast);c. Near the base of the adolescent thalli; d1–2. Branch cells of the adolescent thalli (d2 shows magnification image); e1–7. Formation of branches and their type and morphology released reproductive cells; f1–6. Reproductive cells released by the branched of adolescent thalli (magnification image, short arrows showed the ostiole releasing the reproductive cells) (scale bar: a. 1 mm; b. 100 μm; c. 100 μm; d1. 50 μm; d2. 20 μm; e1–7. 50 μm; f1–6. 20 μm) .

    Figure  5.  Reproductive cells formed and released by the filamentous thallus of adolescent Enteromorpha prolifera at 25℃. a. Reproductive cells formed from the upper cells of the filamentous thallus and their remnants after released. b. Reproductive cells are releasing from some branches.

    Figure  6.  Seasonal variation of water temperature in the western part of the South Yellow Sea (Hu, 2013).

    Figure  7.  Juvenile Enteromorpha prolifera at the intertidal mudflat of Xiangshan County, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province.

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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-05
  • 录用日期:  2022-11-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-09-13
  • 刊出日期:  2023-09-01

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