Two-stage reproduction derived from cells of thallus could directly contribute to seeds for green tidal algal Enteromorpha(Ulva) prolifera/clathrata bloom, with disclosure of their ephemeral trait
Abstract: Green tidal algal Enteromorpha species complete their life cycles by the isomorphic alternation of generations. The provenance of green tide caused by them in the western Yellow Sea has been disputed. The cell reproduction derived from adult thallus was observed on E. clathrata collected from Shantou City, Guangdong Province in this study. Subsequently, it further found that E. proliferia collected from Qingdao City, Shandong Province and Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, produced reproductive cells by somatic cells of its early infantile thallus or branch. The latter is functionally similar to that the seedlings of red alga Porphyra yezoensis produce the monospores, and could exquisitely explain the ephemeral or opportunistic trait and environmental adaptation ability of Enteromorpha species. Changes in growth conditions may induce the two types of cell reproduction. They contribute to the bloom, and can effectively reveal the seasonally occurring large-scale and on-year and off-year phenomenon. The latter may have played a decisive role in its formation. This paper analyses the legal status of the species name, the type of generation during bloom, ephemeral traits, the role of microscopic propagule, the area of origin, on-year and off-year phenomenon, early warning and prevention and control of the species, and so on. On this basis, further study on the influence of environmental factors on cell reproduction of early infantile thalli or branches will achieve a positive effect for early warning and prevention and control of the green tidal algal bloom.
- green tidal algae /
- Yellow Sea /
- opportunistic trait /
- on-year and off-year /
- early infantile /
- alternation of generations /
- prediction on the occurrence process
11Ding Lanping, International Symposium of Advanced Research on Green Tides, May 09–11, 2014, Shanghai, China.
Figure 3. Cell reproduction of infantile Enteromorpha prolifera under room temperature. a. The indoor culture tank of infantile E. prolifera. b. The seedlings of E. prolifera (the thallus, short arrow shows the basal rhizoid). c. The part of the seedling unformed reproductive cells, and the reproductive cells formed near the base of the seedlings and remnants of cell walls after released.
Figure 4. Adolescent Enteromorpha prolifera with reproductive cells formed and released at 22℃. a. Adolescent thalli (short arrow show the formation and release of reproductive cells at first-order branches); b. Base of the adolescent thalli (short arrows show the holdfast);c. Near the base of the adolescent thalli; d1–2. Branch cells of the adolescent thalli (d2 shows magnification image); e1–7. Formation of branches and their type and morphology released reproductive cells; f1–6. Reproductive cells released by the branched of adolescent thalli (magnification image, short arrows showed the ostiole releasing the reproductive cells) (scale bar: a. 1 mm; b. 100 μm; c. 100 μm; d1. 50 μm; d2. 20 μm; e1–7. 50 μm; f1–6. 20 μm) .
Figure 6. Seasonal variation of water temperature in the western part of the South Yellow Sea (Hu, 2013).
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