An innovative classification system for ranking the biological effects of marine aromatic hydrocarbons based on fish embryotoxicity

RongHui Zheng Chao Fang FuKun Hong Min Zhang Fulong Gao YuSheng Zhang Jun Bo

RongHui Zheng, Chao Fang, FuKun Hong, Min Zhang, Fulong Gao, YuSheng Zhang, Jun Bo. An innovative classification system for ranking the biological effects of marine aromatic hydrocarbons based on fish embryotoxicity[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2245-z
Citation: RongHui Zheng, Chao Fang, FuKun Hong, Min Zhang, Fulong Gao, YuSheng Zhang, Jun Bo. An innovative classification system for ranking the biological effects of marine aromatic hydrocarbons based on fish embryotoxicity[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2245-z

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2245-z

An innovative classification system for ranking the biological effects of marine aromatic hydrocarbons based on fish embryotoxicity

Funds: The Scientific Research Foundation of the Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources under contract Nos 2020014 and 2020017; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41977211; the National Program on Global Change and Air-Sea Interaction under contract No. GASI-02-SCS-YDsum.
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  • Figure  1.  Study area and sampling sites.

    Figure  2.  Composition of PAHs according to different ring numbers in seawater from each site.

    Figure  3.  Relative mRNA expression levels of five target genes in the embryos treated with surface seawater samples at different sites compared with the control after 4 d exposure. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error. Significant differences were accepted at * = p < 0.05. Five biological replicates were conducted.

    Figure  4.  Star plot and IBRv2 values at each sampling site. The order of each site was arranged according to the IBRv2 values, which was decreased from left-to-right and top-to-bottom.

    Table  1.   Determination of the alteration level

    Increasing and
    bell-shaped parameters
    Biological relevance
    AF>0.80NAAF<1.20NASmall differences (±20%) with respect to controls; although statistically significant, they are not considered of biological relevance
    AF<0.80-AF>1.20+Larger than 20%, statistically significant differences with respect to controls. The magnitude of changes indicates a first physiological response of the organisms
    AF<0.50- -AF>2.00++Large differences with respect to controls; the change, however large, falls within the range of alterations induced by moderate natural stressors
    Note: AF, alteration factor; NA, no alteration.
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    Table  2.   Summary results of nested ANOVA analyses for IBRv2 values

    Source DF SS MS F p
    Study areas 2 135.869 67.935 1811.151 0.000
    E-T 1 93.268 93.268 4198.732 0.000
    E-P 1 112.483 112.483 2134.084 0.000
    T-P 1 2.273 2.273 57.537 0.000
    Note: E, the estuary area; T, the tourism area; P, the port area; DF, degrees of freedom for each component; SS, the sum-of-squares; MS, the mean-squares; F and p, the estimates of each component.
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    Table  3.   Response profiles of the biomarkers selected in OME-FES and their levels of biological organization

    BiomarkerResponse profileLevel of biological organization
    CYP1A1 geneIncreasingMolecular/cellular
    CYP27B geneIncreasingMolecular/cellular
    CYP3A40 geneIncreasingMolecular/cellular
    AhR geneIncreasingMolecular/cellular
    ARNT geneIncreasingMolecular/cellular
    BSD scoreIncreasingTissue
    survival rateDecreasingOrganism
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    Table  4.   Critical values (CV) of five selected biomarkers and the threshold values of BEI

    $\beta $ Control 1.20 2.00
    CYP1A1 gene 1.00 1.20 2.00
    CYP27B gene 1.00 1.20 2.00
    CYP3A40 gene 1.00 1.20 2.00
    AhR gene 1.00 1.20 2.00
    ARNT gene 1.00 1.20 2.00
    Threshold values of BEI 0.00 2.54 9.65
    Note: $\beta $: selected according to the alteration factor in Table 1 and response profiles of the molecular biomarkers in Table 3.
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    Table  5.   Concentrations (ng/L) of ƩPAHs in coastal waters from different areas worldwide; n denominates the number of samples

    Sampling area No of PAHs n Mean Min Max Reference
    JRE and its adjacent waters 16 12 31.0 20.22 38.71 This study
    Langkawi Island, Malaysia 18 18.0 46.0 Zong et al., 2014
    Natuna, Indonesia 17 0.0 5.8 Zong et al., 2014
    Oostende, Belgium 15 13.0 24.0 Zong et al., 2014
    Chesapeake Bay, USA 17 38 33.3 20.0 65.6 Zhou and Maskaoui, 2003
    Dalian coastal area, China 9 17 60.8 50.5 74.7 Zhang et al., 2020
    the Maowei Sea, China 16 10 33.5 48.5 Zheng et al., 2022
    the Western Taiwan Strait, China 15 31 19.8 12.3 58.0 Wu et al., 2011
    Xiamen Bay, China 16 17 17.0 7.0 26.9 Maskaoui et al., 2002
    JRE, China-wet season 46 20 67.1 24.6 125.9 Wu et al., 2019
    JRE, China-dry season 46 20 27.4 17.5 65.0 Wu et al., 2019
    Thane creek, India 16 10 337 706 Tiwari et al., 2017
    Persian Gulf, Iran 30 360 464 70 884 Jafarabadi et al., 2017
    Aegina Island, Greece 17 103 124 Zong et al., 2014
    Dalian coast, China-winter 46 15 357 136 621 Hong et al., 2016
    Dalian coast, China-summer 46 15 297 65 1,130 Hong et al., 2016
    Luan River estuary, China 14 9 231 3,664 Yan et al., 2016
    Hai River estuary, China 14 11 288 3,797 Yan et al., 2016
    Zhangweixin River estuary, China 15 10 306 7,597 Yan et al., 2016
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