Seasonal influence of freshwater discharge on spatio-temporal variations in primary productivity, sea surface temperature, and euphotic zone depth in the northern Bay of Bengal

Hafez Ahmad Felix Jose Md. Simul Bhuyan Md. Nazrul Islam Padmanava Dash

Hafez Ahmad, Felix Jose, Md. Simul Bhuyan, Md. Nazrul Islam, Padmanava Dash. Seasonal influence of freshwater discharge on spatio-temporal variations in primary productivity, sea surface temperature, and euphotic zone depth in the northern Bay of Bengal[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2254-y
Citation: Hafez Ahmad, Felix Jose, Md. Simul Bhuyan, Md. Nazrul Islam, Padmanava Dash. Seasonal influence of freshwater discharge on spatio-temporal variations in primary productivity, sea surface temperature, and euphotic zone depth in the northern Bay of Bengal[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2254-y

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2254-y

Seasonal influence of freshwater discharge on spatio-temporal variations in primary productivity, sea surface temperature, and euphotic zone depth in the northern Bay of Bengal

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  • Figure  1.  Map of the Bay of Bengal and the five zones identified for studying the NPP, SST, SSS MLD, and EZD variability (coastline data retrieved from https://www.naturalearthdata.com and Bathymetric data from https://www.gebco.net). "Z" represents the abbreviation for "zone".

    Figure  2.  Prevailing northeast and southwest monsoon in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The arrow indicates the direction of wind flow.

    Figure  3.  Freshwater discharge (m3/s) from the seven major rivers joining the BoB (Sandeep and Pant, 2019). Monthly discharge rates of seven rivers (Brahmaputra, Ganges, Irrawaddy, Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Cauvery); major sources of sediments & nutrients in the BoB.

    Figure  4.  Monthly net primary productivity in the northern Bay of Bengal.

    Figure  5.  Monthly net primary productivity distribution.

    Figure  6.  Seasonal net primary productivity map in the northern Bay of Bengal.

    Figure  7.  Monthly-averaged sea surface salinity maps in the northern Bay of Bengal.

    Figure  8.  Seasonal average SSS distribution in the northern Bay of Bengal.

    Figure  9.  Monthly-averaged sea surface temperature (SST) distribution for January, June, October, and December, based on data from 2005 to 2020.

    Figure  10.  Monthly averaged sea surface temperature from the five zones.

    Figure  11.  Seasonal SST distribution

    Figure  12.  Monthly distribution of euphotic zone. a-l presents months from January to December.

    Figure  13.  Inter-annual distribution of MLD (a), NPP (b), SST (c), and SSS (d).

    Figure  14.  Correlation between NPP and MLD.

    Figure  15.  Correlation between SST and NPP in five different zones.

    Figure  16.  Correlation between NPP and euphotic depth.

    Table  1.   Seasonal NPP average and variability

    Zone NPP average NPP variability
    Northeast monsoon Pre-monsoon Southwest monsoon Northeast monsoon Pre-monsoon Southwest monsoon
    1 2566.30 1484.98 2074.39 2696.37 1500.52 1637.74
    2 4033.14 3844.31 4379.77 1582.55 4049.19 3523.57
    3 854.64 2022.13 827.24 694.11 1037.27 1129.52
    4 388.73 400.02 563.99 64.87 134.33 184.57
    5 634.32 969.46 919.49 612.74 1259.97 770.60
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    Table  2.   Seasonal SSS average and variability.

    Zone SSS average SSS variability
    Northeast monsoon Pre-monsoon Southwest monsoon Northeast monsoon Pre-monsoon Southwest monsoon
    1 25.842 32.144 27.024 2.279 0.480 2.670
    2 20.710 32.144 19.807 4.820 3.899 6.671
    3 28.779 32.144 30.856 0.987 0.332 1.020
    4 30.214 32.144 31.258 1.073 0.282 0.976
    5 28.211 32.144 30.786 1.096 0.529 1.280
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Seasonal SST average and variability

    Zone SST average SST variability
    Northeast monsoon Pre-monsoon Southwest monsoon Northeast monsoon Pre-monsoon Southwest monsoon
    1 27.65 28.47 29.76197 0.339 0.581 0.513
    2 27.81 28.95 29.72703 0.660 1.025 0.593
    3 28.10 28.52 29.59749 0.216 0.643 0.374
    4 28.28 28.72 29.24756 0.130 0.147 0.102
    5 28.87 28.84 29.3195 0.868 1.218 0.678
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-05-16
  • 录用日期:  2023-09-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-20

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