The significant role of submarine groundwater discharge in an Arctic fjord nutrient budget

Xueqing Yu Jianan Liu Zhuoyi Zhu Xiaogang Chen Tong Peng Jinzhou Du

Xueqing Yu, Jianan Liu, Zhuoyi Zhu, Xiaogang Chen, Tong Peng, Jinzhou Du. The significant role of submarine groundwater discharge in an Arctic fjord nutrient budget[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2282-7
Citation: Xueqing Yu, Jianan Liu, Zhuoyi Zhu, Xiaogang Chen, Tong Peng, Jinzhou Du. The significant role of submarine groundwater discharge in an Arctic fjord nutrient budget[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2282-7

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2282-7

The significant role of submarine groundwater discharge in an Arctic fjord nutrient budget

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41976040, 41676188, 42106043 and 42006152; Innovation Base for estuarine and coastal water security 2.0 from the Ministry of Science and Technology of P.R. China under contract No BP0820020.
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  • Figure  1.  Locations of the Kongsfjorden and sampling station during 2017. Blue circles, orange diamonds and red triangle represent surface water, river water and groundwater, respectively. Blue arrows indicate ocean currents of Atlantic Water (AW) and Arctic Coastal Water (ACW) (Zhu, 2022).

    Figure  2.  Vertical distributions of salinity, temperature (℃), and density (kg/m) at K2, K3, K5 in Kongsfjorden

    Figure  3.  The distributions of (a) 226Ra and (b) 228Ra activities (Bq/m3) in the different sources of Kongsfjorden.

    Figure  4.  The distributions of DIN, DIP and DSi concentrations (μmol/L) in the different water sources of the Kongsfjorden.

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram for DIN and DIP budgets (all in mol/d) in the upper Kongsfjorden during our sampling period (some data from Piquet et al., 2014; Stewart et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2016; Chen et al., 2018; Hop and Wiencke, 2019; Kim et al., 2020).

    Figure  6.  (a) Locations of SGD flux study cases, as viewed from the geographic North Pole. (b) Distribution of SGD rates (cm/d) for each study site in the Arctic Ocean. The numbers correspond to the study cases in (a). (c) The trend of net primary production in the Arctic Ocean from 2000-2017 that modified from Lewis et al. (2020). (d) The distribution of SGD rates (cm/d) in the Arctic Ocean from 1983-2017. The SGD rate data from Connolly et al., 2020; Cornwell, 1985; Dabrowski et al., 2020; Deming et al., 1992; Dimova et al., 2015; Dzyuba and Zektser, 2013; Hay, 1984; Lecher et al., 2016a; Lecher, 2017; Linhoff et al., 2017; Neilson et al., 2018; Wales et al., 2020; Whalen and Charkin, 1985.

    Figure  7.  The N/P ratios in SGD, river water, floating ice and surface seawater in the Kongsfjorden

    Table  1.   Concentrations of 226Ra ,228Ra, nutrient and other parameters in all samples collected in the Kongsfjorden

    Station Latitude/°N Longitude/°E Temp/℃ Salinity pH DO/
    mgžL−1
    228Ra/
    dpmž100L−1
    226Ra/
    dpmž100L−1
    DIN/
    μmolžL−1
    DIP/
    μmolžL−1
    DSi/
    μmolžL−1
    Seawater
    K2 78.9687 11.8292 3.7 31.7 8.3 12.9 2.4±0.37 2.2±0.32 5.17 0.234 0.591
    K3 78.9518 11.9727 6.6 30.8 8.5 13.1 3.1±0.45 2.5±0.30 7.58 0.073 1.50
    K4 78.9161 12.3308 6.7 31.3 8.5 13.0 2.3±0.32 2.9±0.25
    K5 78.9705 12.3811 7.3 32.3 8.4 12.7 2.0±0.25 2.4±0.22 7.68 0.103 1.99
    K6 78.9592 12.3026 6.5 32.2 8.4 12.8 1.7±0.27 2.3±0.22
    K7 78.9303 12.2014 6.5 31.5 8.5 13.4 3.1±0.25 3.3±0.20
    K8 78.9936 12.3300 6.5 30.9 8.5 13.3 2.4±0.25 2.4±0.18
    K9 78.9302 12.4000 4.9 31.4 8.3 12.7 2.3±0.40 2.8±0.32
    K10 78.9405 12.1013 5.4 31.1 8.6 12.6 1.9±0.30 2.1±0.20
    Groundwater
    GW1 78.9300 11.9307 4.0 0.0 8.1 0.2 8.6±0.30 6.1±0.25 63.70 0.369 48.8
    GW2 78.9502 11.9008 3.5 16.5 8.3 12.5 19.2±0.37 8.6±0.28 5.76 0.234 8.02
    River water
    RW 78.9350 11.9203 1.9 0.2 8.6 13.0 3.5±0.43 2.7±0.28 11.8 0.330 10.5
    Open sea
    K1 78.9899 11.6520 4.0 33.2 8.7 13.3 1.5±0.48 2.0±0.28 4.53 0.205 0.758
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-13
  • 录用日期:  2023-12-07
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-11

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