Effect of dissolved organic nitrogen on the bloom of Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia spp. in the East China Sea coastal waters

Xiaoru Cui Guangming Zhen Jing Zhao Keqiang Li Xiulin Wang

Xiaoru Cui, Guangming Zhen, Jing Zhao, Keqiang Li, Xiulin Wang. Effect of dissolved organic nitrogen on the bloom of Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia spp. in the East China Sea coastal waters[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2308-9
Citation: Xiaoru Cui, Guangming Zhen, Jing Zhao, Keqiang Li, Xiulin Wang. Effect of dissolved organic nitrogen on the bloom of Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia spp. in the East China Sea coastal waters[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2308-9

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2308-9

Effect of dissolved organic nitrogen on the bloom of Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia spp. in the East China Sea coastal waters

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 42130403; the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under contract No. 202362003; and National Key Research & Development Program of China under contract No. 2017YFC1404300.
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  • Figure  1.  Field cruise observation stations and mesocosm experiment site

    Figure  2.  Design of field mesocosm-flask culture experiment

    Figure  3.  Changes in the phytoplankton community in the field cruise stations of R1 (a), M1 (b), S2 (c), and N3 (d). Dominance of algal species is the Berger-Parker dominance index in cell density

    Figure  4.  The density of algal species and algae was predominant in the five groups with different source nutrients (a. MDON, b. TeDON, c. PO4-P, d. NO3-N, e. NH4-N, f. Control group)

    Figure  5.  Concentration changes of different N forms in the field culture experiments (a. MDON, b. TeDON, c. PO4-P, d. NO3-N, e. NH4-N, f. Control group)

    Figure  6.  Growth and death curves of three species of algae in the field culture experiments (a. MDON, b. TeDON, c. PO4-P, d. NO3-N, e. NH4-N; dots represent the in situ concentration in the field experiment, and dotted lines represent the model fitting curves)

    Figure  7.  Variations in nutrient concentrations in the field culture experiments (a. MDON, b. TeDON, c. PO4-P, d. NO3-N, e. NH4-N; dots represent the in situ concentration in the field experiment, and dotted lines represent the model fitting curves)

    Figure  8.  Fluorescence intensity changes in five groups of enrichment experiments (a. MDON, b. TeDON, c. PO4-P, d. NO3-N, e. NH4-N)

    Figure  9.  Correlation analysis between CDOM and phytoplankton (a. MDON, b. TeDON, c. PO4-P, d. NO3-N, e. NH4-N; +: positive correlation; -: negative correlation)

    Figure  10.  The mechanism diagram of P. donghaiense and Karenia spp. blooms

    Nutrients are discharged from sewage treatment plants and aquaculture tailwater and transported from southwest to northeast with the Taiwan Strait Current, which promotes the dinoflagellate blooms and diatom-dinoflagellate regime shifts. The dinoflagellate regime shift loop is P. donghaiense dominant in phase I for the ambient eutrophic DIN and TeDON, whereas Karenia spp. was dominant in phase II for the exhaust of DIN and MDON released from P. donghaiense in the coastal waters of the East China Sea.

    Table  1.   Nutrient concentration setting for the field cultivation experiment/(μmol·L−1)

    Number Add NH4-N NO3-N NO2-N DON PN PO4-P DOP PP
    Blank group / 1.34 5.84 1.07 32.85 7.95 0.21 0.42 1.71
    Control group NH4-N 5.81 5.03 1.27 37.33 10.66 0.19 1.34 1.78
    A MDON 4.38 10.64 0.1 50.67 16.64 0.26 2.74 0.92
    B TeDON 3.91 10.79 1.78 42.43 16.26 0.23 2.51 1.18
    C PO4-P 3.87 7.45 0.47 35.21 16.87 1.29 1.34 1.76
    D NO3-N 3.87 34.61 0.47 35.21 16.83 0.28 1.30 1.71
    E NH4-N 26.77 5.65 1.18 33.26 16.14 0.24 1.32 1.85
    Remark: The microalgae were filtered through a 0.45 μm glass fiber filter membrane in the blank group.
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    Table  2.   Parameters of the NTPD model Maximum Growth, Death, Uptake of Diatoms and Dinoflagellates (P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi); Half-Saturation Constants of Dissolved Nitrogen of Diatoms and Dinoflagellates (P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi); Ammonium Oxidation Rate Constants

    Parameter Description Unit P. donghaiense K. mikimotoi Diatom
    KG Maximum growth rate constant d−1 0.60 0.50 0.20
    KD Maximum death rate constant d−1 0.20 0.10 0.010
    Kup_NH4 Maximum uptake rate constants for NH4-N d−1 0.40 0.10 0.20
    Kup_NO3 Maximum uptake rate constants for NO3-N d−1 0.50 0.20 0.30
    Kup_DON Maximum uptake rate constants for DON d−1 0.075 0.30 0.18
    Ks_NH4 Half-saturation coefficients for NH4-N uptake μmol·L−1 0.25 0.90 0.50
    Ks_NO3 Half-saturation coefficients for NO3-N uptake μmol·L−1 0.75 0.60 0.16
    Ks_DON Half-saturation coefficients for DON uptake μmol·L−1 0.50 0.90 0.50
    KNH4_NO3 Maximum ammonium oxidation rate constant d−1 0.050
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