Effects of nutrient limitations on the sinking velocity of Thalassiosira weissflogii

Jie Zhu Qiang Hao Wei Zhang Yingying Ma Jiangning Zeng

Jie Zhu, Qiang Hao, Wei Zhang, Yingying Ma, Jiangning Zeng. Effects of nutrient limitations on the sinking velocity of Thalassiosira weissflogii[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2309-8
Citation: Jie Zhu, Qiang Hao, Wei Zhang, Yingying Ma, Jiangning Zeng. Effects of nutrient limitations on the sinking velocity of Thalassiosira weissflogii[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2309-8

doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2309-8

Effects of nutrient limitations on the sinking velocity of Thalassiosira weissflogii

Funds: The Key R&D Program of Zhejiang under contract No. 2023C03120; the Science Foundation of Donghai Laboratory under contract No. DH-2022KF0215; the National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract No. 2021YFC3101702; the National Programme on Global Change and Air-Sea Interaction (Phase II)—Hypoxia and Acidification Monitoring Warning Project in the Changjiang Estuary, and Long-term Observation and Research Plan in the Changjiang Estuary and Adjacent East China Sea (LORCE) Project under contract No. SZ2001.
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  • Figure  1.  Cell abundance and growth rate data for the phosphate depletion-spike experiment (a) and nitrate depletion-spike experiment (b). PR, PL, PD, and PS represent phosphate repletion, phosphate limitation, phosphate depletion, and phosphate spike, respectively. NR, NL, ND, and NS represent nitrate repletion, nitrate limitation, nitrate depletion, and nitrate spike, respectively. R represents the post-recovery time, and five-time points 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h were recorded after the addition of limiting nutrients. These abbreviations apply to all figures.

    Figure  2.  Chlorophyll a concentrations and the changes in the optimal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) throughout the phosphate depletion-spike experiment (a) and nitrate depletion-spike experiment (b).

    Figure  3.  Limited nutrient concentrations and sinking velocity data for the phosphate depletion-spike experiment (a) and nitrate depletion-spike experiment (b).

    Figure  4.  Intracellular contents (protein, glucose-based carbohydrate, and lipid) data for the phosphate depletion-spike experiment (a) and nitrate depletion-spike experiment (b). The pie chart shows the proportion of each component in four different stages.

    Figure  5.  TEP concentrations in the nitrate depletion-spike experiment (orange pillars) and phosphate depletion-spike experiment (green pillars).

    Figure  6.  BSi concentrations in the nitrate depletion-spike experiment (purple pillars) and phosphate depletion-spike experiment (yellow pillars).

    Figure  7.  Single-cell surface area in the four nutrient phases.

    Figure  8.  Correlation between SV and physiological-biochemical parameters for the phosphate depletion-spike experiment (a) and nitrate depletion-spike experiment (b). *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01; ***: P< 0.001.

    Figure  9.  Conceptual model to simulate the effect of nutrient limitation on the sinking velocity of Thalassiosira weissflogii in the Yangtze River Estuary. Owing to the input of diluted water from the Yangtze River, there is an excess of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient salts. The nearshore waters of the Yangtze River Estuary are in the stage of nutrient repletion without nutrient limitation; however, with the increase in the spreading distance of the freshwater from the Yangtze River, nutrient concentration gradually decreases, and the phenomena of phosphate limitation and nitrate limitation occur successively. Small yellow circles represent nitrate concentrations, red represents phosphate concentrations, green triangles represent lipid content and blue shades represent extracellular products.

    Table  1.   Changes in the macromolecular composition, Fv/Fm, surface area of a single cell, sinking velocity (SV ), and transparent extracellular polymeric particle (TEP) concentrations in Thalassiosira weissflogii for the nitrate depletion-spike and phosphate depletion-spike experiments.

    Nutrient
    stage
    SV/
    (m·d−1)
    Growth
    rate/d−1
    Fv/Fm Surface area/
    μm2
    Protein/
    (mg·mg−1)
    Glucose-based carbohydrates/
    (μg·mg−1)
    Lipids/
    (mg·mg−1)
    TEP/
    (μg·L−1) (Xeq)
    NR 0.21 ± 0.05 0.55 ± 0.03 0.69 ± 0.01 61.45 ± 14.46 0.34 ± 0.06 2.03 ± 0.52 0.12 ± 0.04 229.38 ± 53.11
    NL 1.09 ± 0.13 0.10 ± 0.02 0.59 ± 0.03 73.43 ± 21.17 0.15 ± 0.03 3.58 ± 0.31 0.53 ± 0.07 261.96 ± 87.91
    ND 0.35 ± 0.04 0.02 ± 0.05 0.34 ± 0.03 68.17 ± 23.01 0.37 ± 0.10 5.15 ± 0.61 0.28 ± 0.07 336.00 ± 46.30
    NS 0.49 ± 0.07 0.04 ± 0.05 0.39 ± 0.02 83.01 ± 20.37 0.20 ± 0.05 6.07 ± 1.33 0.37 ± 0.05 316.50 ± 63.68
    PR 0.17 ± 0.08 0.48 ± 0.06 0.69 ± 0.01 81.34 ± 19.04 0.32 ± 0.06 2.41 ± 0.65 0.10 ± 0.02 184.44 ± 62.55
    PL 0.45 ± 0.06 0.12 ± 0.04 0.63 ± 0.01 77.77 ± 21.65 0.19 ± 0.05 2.52 ± 0.50 0.31 ± 0.03 344.78 ± 75.24
    PD 0.35 ± 0.07 0.06 ± 0.08 0.42 ± 0.02 74.34 ± 24.13 0.38 ± 0.07 4.44 ± 1.25 0.33 ± 0.05 349.88 ± 48.56
    PS 0.41 ± 0.07 0.10 ± 0.07 0.40 ± 0.02 95.59 ± 21.54 0.43 ± 0.09 5.55 ± 0.67 0.31 ± 0.03 313.59 ± 110.49
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