Spatiotemporal characteristics of water exchange between the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal

Yihao Wang Feng Zhou Xueming Zhu Ruijie Ye Yingyu Peng Zhentao Hu Haoran Tian Na Li

Yihao Wang, Feng Zhou, Xueming Zhu, Ruijie Ye, Yingyu Peng, Zhentao Hu, Haoran Tian, Na Li. Spatiotemporal characteristics of water exchange between the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2317-8
Citation: Yihao Wang, Feng Zhou, Xueming Zhu, Ruijie Ye, Yingyu Peng, Zhentao Hu, Haoran Tian, Na Li. Spatiotemporal characteristics of water exchange between the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2317-8

doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2317-8

Spatiotemporal characteristics of water exchange between the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal

Funds: The Joint Advanced Marine and Ecological Studies (JAMES) in the Bay of Bengal and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean supported by the Global Change and Air-Sea Interaction II Program under contract Nos GASI-01-EIND-STwin and GASI-04-WLHY-03; Zhejiang Provincial Ten Thousand Talents Plan under contract No. 2020R52038.
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  • Figure  1.  Bathymetry (m) of BOB (a) and three major passages (b, c, and d). The black solid line represents the 1 800-m isobath, the black dashed lines indicate the three sections used for transport analysis, two red stars mark the mooring sites, the red solid arrow and the blue dashed arrow represent the sea surface circulation patterns during the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon, respectively.

    Figure  2.  The climatological monthly variability of temperature and salinity profiles averaged over the RAMA mooring (15°N, 90°E) during 2010–2019, based on (a and c) RAMA and (b and d) ROMS.

    Figure  3.  The climatological monthly variability of zonal (u) and meridional (v) velocities profiles averaged over the RAMA mooring (0°, 90°E) during 2010–2019, based on RAMA (a and b) and ROMS (c and d).

    Figure  4.  The climatological seasonal surface flow (color shaded for current speed (cm/s), arrows for current direction) in winter (a, e), spring (b, f), summer (c, g), and autumn (d, h) in the AS during 2010–2019, extracted from the OSCAR (a–d) data and ROMS (e–h), respectively.

    Figure  5.  Drifter trajectories within the ROMS flow field. The red and blue dots represent two drifter’s trajectory points respectively, while the direction and size of the arrows indicate the drifter’s flow direction and velocity.

    Figure  6.  Vertical sections of temperature (a, b, and c), salinity (d, e, and f), and density (g, h, and i) for the PC, the TDC, and the GC, respectively.

    Figure  7.  Vertical sections and transport profiles for the PC (a and d), the TDC (b and e) and the GC (c and f). The positive value denotes the inflow from the BOB to the AS, while the negative value is opposite.

    Figure  8.  The EOF modes for the PC (a and d), the TDC (b and e) and the GC (c and f).

    Figure  9.  The first principal component (PC1), the second principal component time series (PC2) and their power spectrum corresponding to the PC (a, d and g), the TDC (b, e and h), and the GC (c, f and i). The dashed line indicates the 95% confidence interval.

    Figure  10.  Schematic of the transports through various channels in the AS. The red straight-edged rectangles represent the exchange of seawater through the channels, the red rounded rectangles represent freshwater runoff input, and the black dashed lines represent the cross sections used for calculations. Negative values represent westward transport, and positive values represent eastward transport, with units in 106 m3/s.

    Figure  11.  Time series and trends of transport in the PC (a), the TDC (b) and the GC (c) based on ROMS output. The dashed lines represent the average value of the channel transport, the dotted lines represent the linear trend of the channel transport, the thin gray lines and thick black lines indicate the 15-d low-passed filtered time series and 120-d low-passed filtered time series. Positive (negative) transport means that water flows into (out of) the AS. The upper right of the graph is the average net transport, and the lower right is the regression coefficient of the transport.

    Figure  12.  Power spectra of full depth water transport in three channels based on unfiltered ROMS data. The dashed lines indicate the 95% confidence interval.

    Figure  13.  Mean Transport of the PC (a), the TDC (b), and the GC (c) during southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon periods from 2010 to 2019, based on ROMS output.

    Figure  14.  (a) Selected kelvin wave path along the 100-m depth contour of the BOB, time-longitude plots of SLA from SL-TAC (b) and ROMS output (c).

    Figure  15.  (a) The time series of SLA for the PC, GC and EQ. Pearson correlation of SLA between the EQ, GC, PC (b, c and d).

    Figure  16.  Power spectral analysis of the time series of SLA. The dashed lines show the 95% significance interval.

    Table  1.   The average transport and standard deviation for the three main channels during winter, spring, summer, autumn, southwest monsoon (SW), northeast monsoon (NE), and annual

    Average transport and standard deviation/(106 m3 « s–1)
    WinterSpringSummerAutumnSWNEAnnual
    PC0.83 ± 0861.49 ± 1.001.22 ± 1.111.01 ± 1.020.78 ± 0.840.44 ± 1.081.14 ± 0.43
    TDC–8.14 ± 2.90–9.18 ± 3.00–9.02 ± 4.13–7.37 ± 4.96–10.80 ± 1.40–8.46 ± 2.45–8.33 ± 1.26
    GC3.24 ± 3.763.78 ± 3.543.64 ± 3.263.52 ± 1.931.34 ± 0.340.84 ± 0.463.63 ± 1.24
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-01-05
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