Astronomical influence of the development of Paleogene thin coal seam groups in offshore Lacustrine basins: A case study of the Zhu Ⅰ Depression’s Enping Formation located in the northern section of the South China Sea

Yan Liu Shengbing Huang Dongdong Wang Nan Li Yuting Yin Ying Chen Zengxue Li

Yan Liu, Shengbing Huang, Dongdong Wang, Nan Li, Yuting Yin, Ying Chen, Zengxue Li. Astronomical influence of the development of Paleogene thin coal seam groups in offshore Lacustrine basins: A case study of the Zhu Ⅰ Depression’s Enping Formation located in the northern section of the South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2332-x
Citation: Yan Liu, Shengbing Huang, Dongdong Wang, Nan Li, Yuting Yin, Ying Chen, Zengxue Li. Astronomical influence of the development of Paleogene thin coal seam groups in offshore Lacustrine basins: A case study of the Zhu Ⅰ Depression’s Enping Formation located in the northern section of the South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2332-x

doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2332-x

Astronomical influence of the development of Paleogene thin coal seam groups in offshore Lacustrine basins: A case study of the Zhu Ⅰ Depression’s Enping Formation located in the northern section of the South China Sea

Funds: The Scientific Research Project under contract No. CCL2021RCPS172KQN; the Formation Mechanism and Distribution Prediction of Cenozoic Marine Source rocks in Qiongdongnan and Pearl River Mouth Basin under contract No. 2021-KT-YXKY-01; the Resource Potential, Accumulation Mechanism and Breakthrough Direction of Potential Oil-rich Sags in Offshore Basins of China under contract No. 2021-KT-YXKY-03; the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)under contract No. 42372132; the Open Foundation of Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Resource Survey and Research and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under contract Nos 42072188 and 42272205.
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  • Figure  1.  Geographical location, tectonic units and comprehensive column of the study area. a. The tectonic units of PRMB and Zhu Ⅰ Depression are located in PRMB, showing the location of wells (refer to Wang et al., 2017, modified). b. Comprehensive histogram of PRMB tectonic evolution (Jiang et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2020a; Wei et al., 2020).

    Figure  2.  Lithologic column of Enping Formation in Zhu Ⅰ Depression (HZ12).

    Figure  3.  Characteristics of coal-forming environments of Enping Formation in Zhu Ⅰ Depression. a. Upper plain of braided river delta of Enping Formation in Well HZ8. b. Lower plain of braided river delta of Enping Formation in Well HZ9. c. Shore-shallow lake of Enping Formation in Well XJ33.

    Figure  4.  Sedimentary facies distribution characteristics of Enping Formation in Xijiang Sag, Zhu Ⅰ Depression. a. Sedimentary facies distribution of the lower part of Enping Formation (Part B). b. Sedimentary facies distribution of the upper part of Enping Formation (Part A) (see Fig.1).

    Figure  5.  The lithology, GR curve, evolutionary spectral analysis results, sedimentation rate curves and stratigraphic segmentation of Enping Formation in Well XJ. a. Sequence division and segmentation. b. Lithology and GR curve. c. Evolutionary spectral analysis results with a 100-m sliding window. d. Sedimentation rate curves obtained by eCOCO analysis and eTimeOpt analysis.

    Figure  6.  Orbital signal recognition in Part A of Enping Formation. a. GR curve after detrending. b. Wavelet analysis. c. Multi-taper method power spectrum analysis. d. Evolutionary spectral analysis results with a 90-m sliding window.

    Figure  7.  Optimal sedimentation rates in Part A and B of Enping Formation by COCO analysis. a. The correlation coefficient in Part A is higher at 15.2 cm/ka. b. Part A null hypothesis confidence, less than 0.001 at 15.2cm/ka. c. The number of astronomical parameters contributed by Part A in the test of sedimentation rate is 7 at 15.2 cm/ka. d. The correlation coefficient of Part B is higher value at 7.9 cm/ka. e. Part B null hypothesis confidence, less than 0.01 at 7.9 cm/ka. f. The number of astronomical parameters contributed by Part B in the test of sedimentation rate is 7 at 7.9 cm/ka.

    Figure  8.  TimeOpt analysis in Part A of Enping Formation. a. Combined envelope and spectral power fit (${\mathrm{r}}^{2}_{{\mathrm{opt}}} $) at each evaluated sedimentation rate and the summary of 2 000 Monte Carlo simulations, p-value = 0.019 5. b. The squared Pearson correlation coefficient (${\mathrm{r}}^{2}_{{\mathrm{envelope}}} $; red) and spectral power fitting correlation coefficient (${\mathrm{r}}^{2}_{{\mathrm{power}}} $; gray). c. Cross plot of the data amplitude envelope and the TimeOpt-reconstructed eccentricity model in panel “d”; dashed red line is the 1:1 line. d. Comparison of data amplitude envelope (red) and TimeOpt reconstructed eccentricity model (black). e. Comparison of band-pass precession signal (blue) with data amplitude envelope (red). f. Periodogram of the data. The red dotted line indicates the target period of eccentricity and precession.

    Figure  9.  Orbital signal recognition in Part B of Enping Formation. a. GR curve after detrending. b. Wavelet analysis. c. Multi-taper method power spectrum analysis. d. Evolutionary spectral analysis results with a 60-m sliding window.

    Figure  10.  TimeOpt analysis in Part B of Enping Formation. a. Combined envelope and spectral power fit (r2opt) at each evaluated sedimentation rate and the summary of 2 000 Monte Carlo simulations, p-value = 0.001. b. The squared Pearson correlation coefficient (r2envelope; red) and spectral power fitting correlation coefficient (r2power; gray). c. Cross plot of the data amplitude envelope and the TimeOpt-reconstructed eccentricity model in panel “d”; dashed red line is the 1:1 line. d. Comparison of data amplitude envelope (red) and TimeOpt reconstructed eccentricity model (black). e. Comparison of band-pass precession signal (blue) with data amplitude envelope (red). f. Periodogram of the data. The red dotted line indicates the target period of eccentricity and precession.

    Figure  11.  The filtering results of long eccentricity (blue) and short eccentricity (red) in Part A and Part B of Enping Formation. a. Filtering results, detrended GR data in the depth domain, and the GR time series of the GR depth record converted to the time domain of Part A. b. Filtering results, detrended GR data in the depth domain, and the GR time series of the GR depth record converted to the time domain of Part B.

    Figure  12.  The relationship between lithology and eccentricity and precession filter curves in Part A of Enping Formation. a. Comparison of GR curve and lithology with long eccentricity (blue), short eccentricity (red), and precession (yellow) filter curves in the depth domain. b. Comparison of continuous multi-layer thin coal seams and filter curves in depth domain in 4060-4 080 m. c. Comparison ofcontinuous multi-layer thin coal and filter curves in depth domain in 4090−4 120 m.

    Figure  13.  The relationship between lithology and eccentricity and precession filter curves of Enping Formation Part B. a. Comparison of GR curve and lithology with long eccentricity (blue), short eccentricity (red), and precession (yellow) filter curves in the depth domain. b. Comparison of 4450−4470 m continuous multi-layer thin coal and filter curves in depth domain. c. Comparison of 4540−4560 m continuous multi-layer thin coal and filter curves in depth domain.

    Figure  14.  The theoretical model of short eccentricity (red) and precession (yellow) forcing climate control formed by peat is explained in five stages.

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