YANG Tingting, CHEN Zhongbiao, HE Yijun. A new method to retrieve salinity profiles from sea surface salinity observed by SMOS satellite[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2015, 34(9): 85-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0735-3
Citation: YANG Tingting, CHEN Zhongbiao, HE Yijun. A new method to retrieve salinity profiles from sea surface salinity observed by SMOS satellite[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2015, 34(9): 85-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0735-3

A new method to retrieve salinity profiles from sea surface salinity observed by SMOS satellite

doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0735-3
  • Received Date: 2014-09-23
  • Rev Recd Date: 2015-02-28
  • This paper proposes a new method to retrieve salinity profiles from the sea surface salinity (SSS) observed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The main vertical patterns of the salinity profiles are firstly extracted from the salinity profiles measured by Argo using the empirical orthogonal function. To determine the time coefficients for each vertical pattern, two statistical models are developed. In the linear model, a transfer function is proposed to relate the SSS observed by SMOS (SMOS_SSS) with that measured by Argo, and then a linear relationship between the SMOS_SSS and the time coefficient is established. In the nonlinear model, the neural network is utilized to estimate the time coefficients from SMOS_SSS, months and positions of the salinity profiles. The two models are validated by comparing the salinity profiles retrieved from SMOS with those measured by Argo and the climatological salinities. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the linear and nonlinear model are 0.08-0.16 and 0.08-0.14 for the upper 400 m, which are 0.01-0.07 and 0.01-0.09 smaller than the RMSE of climatology. The error sources of the method are also discussed.
  • loading
  • Agarwal N, Sharma R, Basu S, et al. 2007. Derivation of salinity profiles in the Indian Ocean from satellite surface observations. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 4(2): 322-325
    Argo Science Team. 2001. Report of the Argo Science Team Second Meeting. In: Koblinsky C J, Smith N R, eds. Argo: The global array of profiling floats, in Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century. Melbourne: GODAE Project Office, Bureau of Meteorology, 248-258
    Ballabrera-Poy J, Mourre B, Garcia-Ladona E, et al. 2009. Linear and non-linear T-S models for the eastern North Atlantic from Argo data: Role of surface salinity observations. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 56(10): 1605-1614
    Boutin J, Martin N. 2006. Argo upper salinity measurements: Perspectives for L-band radiometers calibration and retrieved sea surface salinity validation. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 3(2): 202-206
    Boutin J, Martin N, Reverdin G, et al. 2013. Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: impact of rain. Ocean Science, 9(1): 183-192
    Carnes M R, Teague W J, Mitchell J L. 1994. Inference of subsurface thermohaline structure from fields measurable by satellite. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanographic Techology, 11(2): 551-566
    Emery W J. 1975. Dynamic height from temperature profiles. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 5(2): 369-375
    Emery W J, Wert R T. 1976. Temperature-salinity curves in the Pacific and their application to dynamic height computation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 6(4): 613-617
    Halldor B, Venegas S A. 1997. A manual for EOF and SVD analyses of climatic data. In: CCGCR Rep. Montreal, QC, Canada: McGill Univ, 54
    Hansen D V, Thacker Carlisle W. 1999. Estimation of salinity profiles in the upper ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104(C4): 7291-7933
    Henocq C, Boutin J, Petitcolin F, et al. 2010. Vertical variability of near-surface salinity in the tropics: Consequences for L-band radiometer calibration and validation. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Techology, 27(1): 192-209
    Hosoda S, Ohira T, Nakamura T. 2008. A monthly mean dataset of global oceanic temperature and salinity derived from Argo float observations. JAMSTEC Rep Res Dev, 8: 47-59
    Hsieh W W, Tang Benyang. 1998. Applying neural network models to prediction and data analysis in meteorology and oceanography. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(9): 1855-1870
    Khedouri E, Szczechowski C, Cheney R E. 1983. Potential oceanographic applications of satellite altimetry for inferring subsurface thermal structure. In: Proceedings of the OCEANS'83. San Francisco, CA, US: IEEE, 274-280
    Levitus S, Boyer T P. 1994. Temperature. In: World Ocean Atlas, 117. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3
    Levitus S, Burgett R, Boyer T P. 1994. Salinity. In: World Ocean Atlas, 97. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3
    Mecklenburg S, Drusch M, Kerr Y H, et al. 2012. ESA's soil moisture and ocean salinity mission: Mission performance and operations. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 50(5): 1354-1366
    Monahan A H, Fyfe J C, Ambaum M H P, et al. 2009. Empirical orthogonal functions: The medium is the message. Journal of Climate, 22(24): 6501-6514
    Reul N, Chapron B, Lee T, et al. 2014. Sea surface salinity structure of the meandering Gulf Stream revealed by SMOS sensor. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(9): 3141-3148
    Reul N, Tenerelli J, Boutin J, et al. 2012. Overview of the first SMOS sea surface salinity products. Part I: quality assessment for the second half of 2010. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 50(5): 1636-1647
    Steel R G D, Torrie J H. 1960. Principles and Procedures of Statistics with Special Reference to the Biological Sciences. New York: McGraw Hill
    Vossepoel F C, Reynolds R W, Miller L. 1999. Use of sea level observations to estimate salinity variability in the tropical Pacific. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanoic Techology, 16(10): 1401-1415
    Wong A, Keeley R, Carval T, et al. 2013. ARGO Quality Control Manual (Version 2.9). Argo Data Management
    Yin Xiaobin, Boutin J, Spurgeon P. 2012. First assessment of SMOS data over open ocean: Part I—Pacific Ocean. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 50(5): 1648-1661
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1216) PDF downloads(726) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return