LI Zhanhai, WANG Yaping, CHENG Peng, ZHANG Guoan, LI Jiufa. Flood-ebb asymmetry in current velocity and suspended sediment transport in the Changjiang Estuary[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2016, 35(10): 37-47. doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0923-9
Citation: LI Zhanhai, WANG Yaping, CHENG Peng, ZHANG Guoan, LI Jiufa. Flood-ebb asymmetry in current velocity and suspended sediment transport in the Changjiang Estuary[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2016, 35(10): 37-47. doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0923-9

Flood-ebb asymmetry in current velocity and suspended sediment transport in the Changjiang Estuary

doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0923-9
  • Received Date: 2015-08-27
  • Rev Recd Date: 2015-10-23
  • Time series measurements were conducted on suspended sediment and current velocity from neap tide to spring tide in the South Branch of the upper Changjiang Estuary in the summer of 2011. Strong flood-ebb asymmetry in the current velocity was observed in the South Branch as a result of high river runoff and tide deformation, in which the magnitude and duration of ebb currents were significantly greater than those of flood currents. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and suspended median grain size also exhibited remarkable flood-ebb variation; these variables were considerably larger during the ebb than during the flood and increased from neap to spring tide. Affected by the strong asymmetry in the current velocity and SSC between the flood and ebb, suspended sediment flux during the ebb was notably larger than during the flood, and a seaward tidal net flux was observed in each tidal cycle. The balance of sediment flux illustrates that the seaward sediment transport was dominated by river flow and tidal trapping and the landward sediment transport was dominated by the Stokes drift and the shear effect. Notable resuspension occurred during the spring and moderate tides. The critical velocity for the resuspension of bed sediments was estimated based on the correlation between current velocity with SSC and suspended median grain size. The results show that the critical velocity was approximately 40 cm/s during the flood phases and approximately 80 cm/s during the ebb phases because the surficial flood bed sediments located in the lower reach are much finer than the surficial ebb bed sediments located in the upper reach. The flood-ebb variation in the critical erosion velocity has significant effect on the intratidal variation of SSC and sediment transport process, and it is a common phenomenon in many estuaries of the world due to the complicated spatial distribution of bed sediments.
  • loading
  • Bass S J, Aldridge J N, McCave I N, et al. 2002. Phase relationships between fine sediment suspensions and tidal currents in coastal seas. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(C10):10-1-10-14, doi: 10.1029/2001JC001269
    Chen Shenliang, Zhang Guoan, Yang Shilun, et al. 2006. Temporal variations of fine suspended sediment concentration in the Changjiang River estuary and adjacent coastal waters, China. Journal of Hydrology, 331(1):137-145
    Cheng Peng, Wilson R E. 2008. Modeling sediment suspensions in an idealized tidal embayment:importance of tidal asymmetry and settling lag. Estuaries and Coasts, 31(5):828-842
    Cook T, Sommerfield C K, Wong K C. 2007. Observations of tidal and springtime sediment transport in the upper Delaware Estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 72(1):235-246
    Dyer K R. 1974. The salt balance in stratified estuaries. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 2(3):273-281 Dyer K R. 1986. Coastal and Estuarine Sediment Dynamics. Chichester:John Wiley & Sons, 342
    Friedrichs C T, Aubrey D G. 1988. Non-linear tidal distortion in shal-low well-mixed estuaries:a synthesis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 27(5):521-545
    Gao Shu, Wang Yaping. 2008. Changes in material fluxes from the Changjiang River and their implications on the adjoining con-tinental shelf ecosystem. Continental Shelf Research, 28(12):1490-1500
    Geyer W R, Woodruff J D, Traykovski P. 2001. Sediment transport and trapping in the Hudson River Estuary. Estuaries, 24(5):670-679
    Grabowski R C, Droppo I G, Wharton G. 2011. Erodibility of cohesive sediment:the importance of sediment properties. Earth-Sci-ence Reviews, 105(3-4):101-120
    Green M O, Bell R G, Dolphin T J, et al. 2000. Silt and sand transport in a deep tidal channel of a large estuary (Manukau Harbour, New Zealand). Marine Geology, 163(1-4):217-240
    Guézennec L, Lafiter R, Dupont J P, et al. 1999. Hydrodynamics of suspended sediment particulate matter in the tidal freshwater zone of a macrotidal estuary (the Seine Estuary, France). Estu-aries, 22(3):717-727
    Hughes M G, Harres P T, Hubble T C T. 1998. Dynamics of the turbid-ity maximum zone in a micro-tidal estuary:Hawkesbury River, Australia. Sedimentology, 45(2):397-410
    Jiang Chenjuan, de Swart H E, Li Jiufa, et al. 2013. Mechanisms of along-channel sediment transport in the North Passage of the Yangtze Estuary and their response to large-scale interventions. Ocean Dynamics, 63(2-3):283-305
    Li Zhanhai, Gao Shu, Chen Shenliang, et al. 2006. Grain-size distribu-tion patterns of suspended sediment in response to hydro-dynamics on the Dafeng intertidal flat, Jiangsu, China. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 25(6):63-77
    Li Zhanhai, Li M Z, Dai Zhijun, et al. 2015. Intratidal and neap-spring variations of suspended sediment concentrations and sedi-ment transport processes in the North Branch of the Changji-ang Estuary. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 34(1):137-147
    Li Jiufa, Zhang Chen. 1998. Sediment resuspension and implications for turbidity maximum in the Changjiang Estuary. Marine Geo-logy, 148(3-4):117-124
    Lindsay P, Balls P W, West J R. 1996. Influence of tidal range and river discharge on suspended sediment particulate matter fluxes in the Forth Estuary (Scotland). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Sci-ence, 42(1):63-82
    Luo Xiangxin. 2013. The spatial and temporal variation in sediment grain size in middle and lower Yangtze River, Yangtze Estuary and the offshore area adjacent to Yangtze Estuary-the impact of natural factors and human activities (in Chinese)[dissertation]. Shanghai:East China Normal University
    Milliman J D, Shen Huangting, Yang Zuosheng, et al. 1985. Transport and deposition of river sediment in the Changjiang estuary and adjacent continental shelf. Continental Shelf Research, 4(1-2):37-45
    Mitchell S B, Lawler D M, West J R, et al. 2003. Use of continuous tur-bidity sensor in the prediction of fine sediment transport in the turbidity maximum of the Trent Estuary, UK. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 58(3):645-652
    Mitchell S B, West J R, Arundale A M W, et al. 1999. Dynamics of the turbidity maxima in the upper Humber Estuary system, UK. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37(3-7):190-205
    Pawlowicz R, Beardsley B, Lentz S. 2002. Classical tidal harmonic analysis including error estimates in MATLAB using T_TIDE. Computes & Geosciences, 28(8):929-937
    Pu Xiang, Shi J Z, Hu Guodong, et al. 2015. Circulation and mixing along the North Passage in the Changjiang River estuary, China. Journal of Marine Systems, 148:213-235
    Ralston D K, Geyer W R. 2009. Episodic and long-term sediment transport capacity in the Hudson River Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts, 32(6):1130-1151
    Scully M E, Friedrichs C T. 2003. The influence of asymmetries in overlying stratification on near-bed turbulence and sediment suspension in a partially mixed estuary. Ocean Dynamics, 53(3):208-219
    Scully M E, Friedrichs C T. 2007. Sediment pumping by tidal asym-metry in a partially mixed estuary. Journal of Geophysical Re-search, 112(C7):doi: 10.1029/2006JC003784
    Shen Hunting, Pan Dingan. 2001. Turbidity Maximum in the Changji-ang Estuary (in Chinese). Beijing:China Ocean Press, 194
    Shi Z. 2004. Behaviour of fine suspended sediment at the North pas-sage of the Changjiang Estuary, China. Journal of Hydrology, 293(1-4):180-190
    Shi J Z. 2010. Tidal resuspension and transport processes of fine sedi-ment within the river plume in the partially-mixed Changjiang River estuary, China:a personal perspective. Geomorphology, 121(3-4):133-151
    Shi J Z. 2011. Tide-induced fine sediment resuspension in the well-mixed Hangzhou Bay, East China Sea, China. Earth and Envir-onmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin-burgh, 102(1):25-34
    Shi J Z, Zhang S Y, Hamilton L J. 2006. Bottom fine sediment bound-ary layer and transport processes at the mouth of the Changji-ang Estuary, China. Journal of Hydrology, 327(1-2):276-288
    Shi Z, Zhou H J. 2004. Controls on effective settling velocities of mud flocs in the Changjiang Estuary, China. Hydrological Processes, 18(15):2877-2892
    Song Dehai, Wang Xiaohua. 2013. Suspended sediment transport in the Deepwater Navigation Channel, Yangtze River Estuary, China, in the dry season 2009:2. Numerical simulations. Journ-al of Geophysical Research, 118(10):5568-5590
    Song Dehai, Wang Xiaohua, Cao Zhenyi, et al. 2013. Suspended sedi-ment transport in the Deepwater Navigation Channel, Yangtze River Estuary, China, in the dry season 2009:1. Observations over spring and neap tidal cycles. Journal of Geophysical Re-search, 118(10):5555-5567
    Soulsby R. 1997. Dynamics of Marine Sands:a Manual for Practical Application. London:Thomas Telford, 249
    Spahn E Y, Horner-Devine A R, Nash J D, et al. 2009. Particle resus-pension in the Columbia River plume near field. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114(C2):doi: 10.1029/2008JC004986
    Uncles R J, Stephens J A. 2010. Turbidity and sediment transport in a muddy sub-estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 87(2):213-224
    Uncles R J, Stephens J A, Harris C. 2006. Runoff and tidal influences on the estuarine turbidity maximum of a highly turbid system:the upper Humber and Ouse Estuary, UK. Marine Geology, 235(1-4):213-228
    Van Rijn L C. 1993. Principles of Sediment Transport in Rivers, Estu-aries and Coastal Seas. Netherlands:Aqua Publication, Amster-dam Multiple Pagination, 700
    Wang Yaping, Voulgaris G, Li Yan, et al. 2013. Sediment resuspen-sion, flocculation, and settling in a macrotidal estuary. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118(10):5591-5608
    Whitehouse R J S, Soulsby R L, Roberts W, et al. 2000. Dynamics of Es-tuarine Muds:a Manual for Practical Applications. London:Thomas Telford, 210
    Winterwerp J C. 2011. Fine sediment transport by tidal asymmetry in the high-concentrated Ems River:indications for a regime shift in response to channel deepening. Ocean Dynamics, 61(2-3):203-215
    Wu Yongsheng, Chaffey J, Greenberg D A, et al. 2011. Tidally-in-duced sediment transport patterns in the upper Bay of Fundy:a numerical study. Continental Shelf Research, 31(19-20):2041-2053
    Wu Jiaxue, Liu J T, Wang Xia. 2012. Sediment trapping of turbidity maxima in the Changjiang Estuary. Marine Geology, 303-306:14-25
    Yang S L, Zhang J, Xu X J. 2007. Influence of the Three Gorges Dam on downstream delivery of sediment and its environmental im-plications, Yangtze River. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(10):L10401, doi: 10.1029/2007GL029472
    Zhao Fangfang. 2014. Temporal and spatial variations and transport mechanisms of suspended sediment in the middle reach of North Passage in the Yangtze Estuary (in Chinese)[disserta-tion]. Shanghai:East China Normal University
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌,
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1097) PDF downloads(887) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint