Volume 39 Issue 3
Apr.  2020
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Lehua Qi, Guangming Kan, Baohua Liu, Yanliang Pei, Zhiguo Yang, Shengqi Yu. Sea-surface acoustic backscattering measurement at 6–25 kHz in the Yellow Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2020, 39(3): 113-122. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1539-7
Citation: Lehua Qi, Guangming Kan, Baohua Liu, Yanliang Pei, Zhiguo Yang, Shengqi Yu. Sea-surface acoustic backscattering measurement at 6–25 kHz in the Yellow Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2020, 39(3): 113-122. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1539-7

Sea-surface acoustic backscattering measurement at 6–25 kHz in the Yellow Sea

doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1539-7
Funds:  The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41330965 and 41527809; the Opening Fund of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology under contract No. QNLM2016ORP0209; the Taishan Scholar Project Funding under contract No. tspd20161007.
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  • Corresponding author: E-mail: kgming135@fio.org.cn
  • Received Date: 2018-10-29
  • Accepted Date: 2019-09-02
  • Available Online: 2020-04-21
  • Publish Date: 2020-03-25
  • Sea-surface acoustic backscattering measurements at moderate to high frequencies were performed in the shallow water of the south Yellow Sea, using omnidirectional spherical sources and omnidirectional hydrophones. Sea-surface backscattering data for frequencies in the 6–25 kHz range and wind speeds of (3.0±0.5) and (4.5±1.0) m/s were obtained from two adjacent experimental sites, respectively. Computation of sea-surface backscattering strength using bistatic transducer is described. Finally, we calculated sea-surface backscattering strengths at grazing angles in the range of 16°–85°. We find that the measured backscattering strengths agree reasonably well with those predicted by using second order small-roughness perturbation approximation method with “PM” roughness spectrum for all frequencies at grazing angles ranged from 40° to 80°. The backscattering strengths varied slightly at grazing angles of 16°–40°, and were much stronger than roughness scattering. It is speculated that scattering from bubbles dominates the backscattering strengths at high wind speeds and small grazing angles. At the same frequencies and moderate to high grazing angles, the results show that the backscattering strengths at a wind speed of (4.5±1.0) m/s were approximately 5 dB higher than those at a wind speed of (3.0±0.5) m/s. However, the discrepancies of backscattering strength at low grazing angles were more than 10 dB. Furthermore the backscattering strengths exhibited no significant frequency dependence at 3 m/s wind speed. At a wind speed of 4.5 m/s, the scattering strengths increased at low grazing angles but decreased at high grazing angles with increasing grazing angle.
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