Volume 41 Issue 6
Jun.  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jian’an Liu, Dongyan Liu, Jinzhou Du. Radium-traced nutrient outwelling from the Subei Shoal to the Yellow Sea: Fluxes and environmental implication[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2022, 41(6): 12-21. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1930-z
Citation: Jian’an Liu, Dongyan Liu, Jinzhou Du. Radium-traced nutrient outwelling from the Subei Shoal to the Yellow Sea: Fluxes and environmental implication[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2022, 41(6): 12-21. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1930-z

Radium-traced nutrient outwelling from the Subei Shoal to the Yellow Sea: Fluxes and environmental implication

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1930-z
Funds:  The National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under contract No. 2016YFC1402106; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41376089, 41576083, 41976040, 41876127 and 42030402; the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under contract No. 2020M671048.
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail: jzdu@sklec.ecnu.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 2021-01-26
  • Accepted Date: 2021-04-19
  • Available Online: 2021-12-14
  • Publish Date: 2022-06-16
  • The Subei Shoal is the largest sandy ridge in the southern Yellow Sea and is important source for nutrient loading to the sea. Here, the nutrient fluxes in the Subei Shoal associated with eddy diffusion and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) were assessed to understand their impacts on the nutrient budget in the Yellow Sea. Based on the analysis of 223Ra and 224Ra in the field observation, the offshore eddy diffusivity mixing coefficient and SGD were estimated to be 2.3×108 cm2/s and 2.6×109 m3/d (16 cm/d), respectively, in the Subei Shoal. Combined the significant offshore decreasing gradients of nutrient in seawater of the Subei Shoal, the spatially integrated nutrient outwelling fluxes to the Yellow Sea were 262−1 465 μmol/(m2·d) for DIN, 5.2−21 μmol/(m2·d) for DIP and 711−913 μmol/(m2·d) for DSi. Compared to the riverine input, atmospheric deposition and mariculture, nutrient outwelling from the Subei Shoal might play an important role in nutrient budget of the Yellow Sea. These nutrient fluxes could provide 4.1%−23% N and 1.3%−5.3% P requirements for the primary productivity, and the deviated DIN/DIP ratios have the potential to affect the growth of phytoplankton in the marine ecosystem of the Yellow Sea.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Andersen J H, Conley D J. 2009. Eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems: towards better understanding and management strategies. Hydrobiologia, 629(1): 1–4. doi: 10.1007/s10750-009-9758-0
    Anderson D M, Glibert P M, Burkholder J M. 2002. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: nutrient sources, composition, and consequences. Estuaries, 25(4B): 704–726. doi: 10.1007/bf02804901
    Annett A L, Henley S F, Van Beek P, et al. 2013. Use of radium isotopes to estimate mixing rates and trace sediment inputs to surface waters in northern Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Science, 25(3): 445–456. doi: 10.1017/s0954102012000892
    Bao Min, Guan Weibing, Wang Zongling, et al. 2015. Features of the physical environment associated with green tide in the southwestern Yellow Sea during spring. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 34(7): 97–104. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0692-x
    Charette M A, Gonneea M E, Morris P J, et al. 2007. Radium isotopes as tracers of iron sources fueling a Southern Ocean phytoplankton bloom. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 54(18–20): 1989–1998,
    Cheng Xueli, Sun Qun, Wang Yuheng, et al. 2017. Analysis on seasonal variations and structures of the tidal front outside of the Subei Shoal. Marine Sciences, 41(12): 1–8. doi: 10.11759/hykx20151108001
    Colbert S L, Hammond D E. 2007. Temporal and spatial variability of radium in the coastal ocean and its impact on computation of nearshore cross-shelf mixing rates. Continental Shelf Research, 27(10–11): 1477–1500,
    Ding Xianrong, Kang Yanyan, Mao Zhibing, et al. 2014. Analysis of largest tidal range in radial sand ridges southern Yellow Sea. Haiyang Xuebao (in Chinese), 36(11): 12–20. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4193.2014.11.002
    Dulaiova H, Ardelan M V, Henderson P B, et al. 2009. Shelf-derived iron inputs drive biological productivity in the southern Drake Passage. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23(4): GB4014. doi: 10.1029/2008gb003406
    Falkowski P G, Barber R T, Smetacek V. 1998. Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science, 281(5374): 200–206. doi: 10.1126/science.281.5374.200
    Fischer H B. 1980. Mixing processes on the Atlantic continental shelf, Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. Limnology and Oceanography, 25(1): 114–125. doi: 10.4319/lo.1980.25.1.0114
    Garcia-Orellana J, Cochran J K, Bokuniewicz H, et al. 2014. Evaluation of 224Ra as a tracer for submarine groundwater discharge in Long Island Sound (NY). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 141: 314–330. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.05.009
    Garcia-Solsona E, Garcia-Orellana J, Masqué P, et al. 2008. Uncertainties associated with 223Ra and 224Ra measurements in water via a Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Marine Chemistry, 109(3–4): 198–219,
    Gómez-Álvarez P, Bates B, Santos I R, et al. 2019. Submarine groundwater discharge revealed by 224Ra and 223Ra in Coffs Harbour, Australia. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 319(3): 1193–1199. doi: 10.1007/s10967-019-06412-0
    Gu Hequan. 2015. A quantitative study on the sources and sinks of radium isotopes in near-shore waters—Taking Changjiang estuary and its adjacent offshore area, Bamen Lagoon, Gaolong Bay and Boao Bay in Hainan for example (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Shanghai: East China Normal University
    Hancock G J, Webster I T, Stieglitz T C. 2006. Horizontal mixing of Great Barrier Reef waters: offshore diffusivity determined from radium isotope distribution. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111(C12): C12019. doi: 10.1029/2006jc003608
    Jin Jie, Liu Sumei, Ren Jingling, et al. 2013. Nutrient dynamics and coupling with phytoplankton species composition during the spring blooms in the Yellow Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part Ⅱ: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 97: 16–32. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.05.002
    Ku T L, Luo Shangde. 1994. New appraisal of Radium 226 as a large-scale oceanic mixing tracer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99(C5): 10255–10273. doi: 10.1029/94JC00089
    Kwon H K, Kim G, Han Yongjin, et al. 2019. Tracing the sources of nutrients fueling dinoflagellate red tides occurring along the coast of Korea using radium isotopes. Scientific Reports, 9(1): 15319. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51623-w
    Le Moal M, Gascuel-Odoux C, Ménesguen A, et al. 2019. Eutrophication: a new wine in an old bottle?. Science of the Total Environment, 651: 1–11,
    Li Chunyan, Cai Weijun. 2011. On the calculation of eddy diffusivity in the shelf water from radium isotopes: high sensitivity to advection. Journal of Marine Systems, 86(1–2): 28–33,
    Li Yuanhui, Mathieu G, Biscaye P, et al. 1977. The flux of 226Ra from estuarine and continental shelf sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 37(2): 237–241. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(77)90168-6
    Li Hongmei, Zhang Chuansong, Han Xiurong, et al. 2015. Changes in concentrations of oxygen, dissolved nitrogen, phosphate, and silicate in the southern Yellow Sea, 1980–2012: sources and seaward gradients. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163: 44–55,
    Li Hongmei, Zhang Yongyu, Tang Hongjie, et al. 2017. Spatiotemporal variations of inorganic nutrients along the Jiangsu coast, China, and the occurrence of macroalgal blooms (green tides) in the southern Yellow Sea. Harmful Algae, 63: 164–172. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2017.02.006
    Liu Jianan, Du Jinzhou, Wu Ying, et al. 2018. Nutrient input through submarine groundwater discharge in two major Chinese estuaries: the Pearl River Estuary and the Changjiang River Estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 203: 17–28,
    Liu Sumei, Hong G H, Zhang Jing, et al. 2009b. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries. Biogeosciences, 6(10): 2245–2263. doi: 10.5194/bg-6-2245-2009
    Liu Jianan, Hrustić E, Du Jinzhou, et al. 2019. Net submarine groundwater-derived dissolved inorganic nutrients and carbon input to the oligotrophic stratified karstic estuary of the Krka River (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Journal of Geophysical Research, 124(6): 4334–4349. doi: 10.1029/2018jc014814
    Liu Dongyan, Keesing J K, He Peimin, et al. 2013. The world’s largest macroalgal bloom in the Yellow Sea, China: formation and implications. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 129: 2–10,
    Liu Dongyan, Keesing J K, Xing Qianguo, et al. 2009a. World’s largest macroalgal bloom caused by expansion of seaweed aquaculture in China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58(6): 888–895. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.01.013
    Liu Jian’an, Su Ni, Wang Xilong, et al. 2017. Submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes into the southern Yellow Sea: a case study for semi-enclosed and oligotrophic seas-implication for green tide bloom. Journal of Geophysical Research, 122(1): 139–152. doi: 10.1002/2016jc012282
    Liu Xiangqing, Wang Zongling, Zhang Xuelei. 2016. A review of the green tides in the Yellow Sea, China. Marine Environmental Research, 119: 189–196. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.06.004
    Liu Sumei, Zhang Jing, Chen S Z, et al. 2003. Inventory of nutrient compounds in the Yellow Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 23(11–13): 1161–1174,
    Ma Hongrui, Chen Jufa, Cui Yi, et al. 2010. Analysis of water quality and assessment of major pollutants input to the sea from the Guan River and Sheyang River. Progress in Fishery Sciences, 31(3): 92–99
    Men Wu, Wei Hao, Liu Guangshan. 2006. 226Ra and 228Ra in the seawater of the western Yellow Sea. Journal of Ocean University of China, 5(3): 228–234. doi: 10.1007/s11802-006-0006-1
    Miao Xiaoxiang, Xiao Jie, Xu Qinzeng, et al. 2020. Distribution and species diversity of the floating green macroalgae and micro-propagules in the Subei Shoal, southwestern Yellow Sea. PeerJ, 8: e10538. doi: 10.7717/peerj.10538
    Moore W S. 1976. Sampling 228Ra in the deep ocean. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, 23(7): 647–651. doi: 10.1016/0011-7471(76)90007-3
    Moore W S. 1996. Large groundwater inputs to coastal waters revealed by 226Ra enrichments. Nature, 380(6575): 612–614. doi: 10.1038/380612a0
    Moore W S. 2000. Determining coastal mixing rates using radium isotopes. Continental Shelf Research, 20(15): 1993–2007. doi: 10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00054-6
    Moore W S. 2008. Fifteen years experience in measuring 224Ra and 223Ra by delayed-coincidence counting. Marine Chemistry, 109(3–4): 188–197,
    Moore W S. 2010. The effect of submarine groundwater discharge on the ocean. Annual Review of Marine Science, 2: 59–88. doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-120308-081019
    Moore W S. 2015. Inappropriate attempts to use distributions of 228Ra and 226Ra in coastal waters to model mixing and advection rates. Continental Shelf Research, 105: 95–100. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2015.05.014
    Moore W S, Arnold R. 1996. Measurement of 223Ra and 224Ra in coastal waters using a delayed coincidence counter. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(C1): 1321–1329. doi: 10.1029/95jc03139
    Pasquero C. 2005. Differential eddy diffusion of biogeochemical tracers. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(17): L17603. doi: 10.1029/2005gl023662
    Santos I R, Niencheski F, Burnett W, et al. 2008. Tracing anthropogenically driven groundwater discharge into a coastal lagoon from southern Brazil. Journal of Hydrology, 353(3–4): 275–293,
    Sarmiento J L, Thiele G, Key R M, et al. 1990. Oxygen and nitrate new production and remineralization in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95(C10): 18303–18315. doi: 10.1029/JC095iC10p18303
    Shi Xiaoyong, Qi Mingyan, Tang Hongjie, et al. 2015. Spatial and temporal nutrient variations in the Yellow Sea and their effects on Ulva prolifera blooms. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163: 36–43,
    Sippo J Z, Maher D T, Schulz K G, et al. 2019. Carbon outwelling across the shelf following a massive mangrove dieback in Australia: insights from radium isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 253: 142–158. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2019.03.003
    Stachelhaus S L, Moran S B. 2012. A simple differential diffusion model to account for the discrepancy between 223Ra- and 224Ra-based eddy diffusivities. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(C3): C03004. doi: 10.1029/2011jc007500
    Su Ni. 2013. Tracing coastal water mixing processes and submarine groundwater discharge by radium isotopes (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Shanghai: East China Normal University
    Su Ni, Du Jinzhou, Li Ying, et al. 2013a. Evaluation of surface water mixing and associated nutrient fluxes in the East China Sea using 226Ra and 228Ra. Marine Chemistry, 156: 108–119. doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2013.04.009
    Su Ni, Du Jinzhou, Liu Sumei, et al. 2013b. Nutrient fluxes via radium isotopes from the coast to offshore and from the seafloor to upper waters after the 2009 spring bloom in the Yellow Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 97: 33–42. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.05.003
    Swarzenski P W. 2007. U/Th series radionuclides as coastal groundwater tracers. Chemical Reviews, 107(2): 663–674. doi: 10.1021/cr0503761
    Tang Danling, Kawamura H, Doan-Nhu H, et al. 2004. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom off the coast of southeastern Vietnam. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109(C3): C03014. doi: 10.1029/2003jc002045
    Walsh J J. 1991. Importance of continental margins in the marine biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen. Nature, 350(6313): 53–55. doi: 10.1038/350053a0
    Wang Xuejing, Li Hailong, Zheng Chunmiao, et al. 2018. Submarine groundwater discharge as an important nutrient source influencing nutrient structure in coastal water of Daya Bay, China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 225: 52–65. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2018.01.029
    Wang Guizhi, Wang Zhangyong, Zhai Weidong, et al. 2015. Net subterranean estuarine export fluxes of dissolved inorganic C, N, P, Si, and total alkalinity into the Jiulong River estuary, China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 149: 103–114. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.11.001
    Werner F E, Blanton J O, Lynch D R, et al. 1993. A numerical study of the continental shelf circulation of the U. S. South Atlantic Bight during the autumn of 1987. Continental Shelf Research, 13(8–9): 971–997,
    Xiao Jie, Fan Shiliang, Wang Zongling, et al. 2020. Decadal characteristics of the floating Ulva and Sargassum in the Subei Shoal, Yellow Sea. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 39(10): 1–10. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1655-4
    Zhang Jing, Liu Sumei, Ren Jingling, et al. 2007a. Nutrient gradients from the eutrophic Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary to the oligotrophic Kuroshio waters and re-evaluation of budgets for the East China Sea Shelf. Progress in Oceanography, 74(4): 449–478. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.04.019
    Zhang Yan, Santos I R, Li Hailong, et al. 2020a. Submarine groundwater discharge drives coastal water quality and nutrient budgets at small and large scales. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 290: 201–215. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2020.08.026
    Zhang Haibo, Su Rongguo, Shi Xiaoyong, et al. 2020b. Role of nutrients in the development of floating green tides in the Southern Yellow Sea, China, in 2017. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 156: 111197. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111197
    Zhang Guosen, Zhang Jing, Liu Sumei. 2007b. Characterization of nutrients in the atmospheric wet and dry deposition observed at the two monitoring sites over Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 57(1): 41–57. doi: 10.1007/s10874-007-9060-3
    Zhao Shibin, Yao Qingzhen, Yu Zhigang, et al. 2018. Submarine groundwater discharge and its contribution to nutrients fluxes in the Subei Shoal, China. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 49(5): 1038–1044
    Zhou Feng, Huang Daji, Wang Ruijing, et al. 2008. Observations and analysis of tidal fronts in the southwestern Huanghai Sea. Haiyang Xuebao (in Chinese), 30(3): 9–15
    Zhu Ping, Wu Hui. 2018. Origins and transports of the low-salinity coastal water in the southwestern Yellow Sea. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 37(4): 1–11. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1200-x
    Ziegler S, Benner R. 1999. Nutrient cycling in the water column of a subtropical seagrass meadow. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 188: 51–62. doi: 10.3354/meps188051
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(8)  / Tables(2)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (163) PDF downloads(19) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint