2010 Vol. 29, No. 3

Display Method:
Spectral classification of water masses under the influence of the Amazon River plume
Gustavo Souto Fontes Molleri, Milton Kampel, Evlyn Márcia Leão de Moraes Novo
2010, (3): 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0031-1
The large amount of dissolved and particulate material discharged by the Amazon River into the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean cause distinct spectral response of its waters as compared to the nearby ocean waters. This paper shows the application of K-means clustering algorithm for classifying water masses in the region under the Amazon River plume influence according to their spectral behavior. Salinity and temperature data from 67 oceanographic stations were related to Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) remote sensing reflectances values and the following bio-optical products:(i) chlorophyll-a concentration, (ii) water attenuation coefficient and (iii) absorption coefficient for dissolved and detrital material. Four different water masses were identified such as:(1) oceanic water, (2) intermediate oceanic water, (3) intermediate river plume water and (4) Amazon River plume water. The spectral behavior of these water masses allowed concluding that the main active optical component of the waters in the region is the colored dissolved organic matter originated mostly from the Amazon River.
Sub-seasonal variability of Luzon Strait Transport in a high resolution global model
ZHANG Zhengguang, ZHAO Wei, LIU Qinyu
2010, (3): 9-17. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0032-0
The Luzon Strait is the main impact pathway of the Kuroshio on the circulation in South China Sea (SCS). Based on the analysis of the 1997-2007 altimeter data and 2005-2006 output data from a high resolution global HYCOM model, the total Luzon Strait Transport (LST) has remarkable subseasonal oscillations with a typical period of 90 to 120 days, and an average value of 1.9 Sv into SCS. Further spectrum analysis shows that the temporal variability of the LST at different depth is remarkable different. In the upper layer (0-300 m), westward inflow has significant seasonal and subseasonal variability. In the bottom layer (below 1 200 m), eastward outflow exhibits remarkable seasonal variability, while subseasonal variability is also clear. In the intermediate layer, the westward inflow is slightly bigger than the eastward outflow, and both of them have obvious seasonal and subseasonal variability. Because the seasonal variation of westward inflow and eastward outflow is opposite, the total transport of intermediate layer exhibits significant 50-150 days variation, without obvious seasonal signals. The westward Rossby waves with a period of 90 to 120 days in the Western Pacific have very clear correlationship with the Luzon Strait Transport, this indicates that the interaction between these westward Rossby waves and Kuroshio might be the possible mechanism of the subseasonal variation of the LST.
A study of internal solitary waves observed on the continental shelf in the northwestern South China Sea
XU Zhenhua, YIN Baoshu, HOU Yijun, FAN Zhisong, Antony K LIU
2010, (3): 18-25. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0033-z
Based on in-situ time series data from the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and thermistor chain in Wenchang area, a sequence of internal solitary wave (ISW) packets was observed in September 2005, propagating northwest on the continental shelf of the northwestern South China Sea (SCS). Corresponding to different stratification of the water column and tidal condition, both elevation and depression ISWs were observed at the same mooring location with amplitude of 35 m and 25 m respectively in different days. Regular arrival of the remarkable ISW packets at approximately the diurnal tidal period and the dominance of diurnal internal waves in the study area, strongly suggest that the main energy source of the waves is the diurnal tide. Notice that the wave packets were all riding on the troughs and shoulders of the internal tides, they were probably generated locally from the shelf break by the evolution of the internal tides due to nonlinear and dispersive effects.
Invading cord grass vegetation changes analyzed from Landsat-TM imageries: a case study from the Wanggang area, Jiangsu coast, eastern China
LI Jing, GAO Shu, WANG Yaping
2010, (3): 26-37. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0034-y
Cord grass colonization on the Jiangsu coast, eastern China, modifies the native salt marshes in terms of ecosystem structure. The Landsat TM images from 1992 to 2003 were analyzed to identify salt-marsh vegetation distribution patterns and their changes over this coastal region, in order to evaluate the effects of the spreading of the artificially introduced halophyte Spartina. Supervised classification was performed using Bands 3, 4 and 5 in conjunction with in situ training samples, to derive the distribution pattern of the vegetation in the study area. Further, in order to identify the intertidal areas with different tidal elevations, a data treatment procedure was designed to combine regional water level data using harmonic analysis with the waterlines on the TM images extracted by density slice. The results show that:(1) the Spartina alterniflora area has been expanding towards the sea rapidly since it was introduced, especially at initial stages; (2) in the upper part of the inter-tidal zone, the local marsh plant Suaeda salsa and the exotic species Spartina anglica were present only near the sea dyke, occupying only a small part of the entire salt marsh, and the area of these two species has been reduced by land reclamation; (3) there has been a trend for Spartina alterniflora to become the dominant species in the salt marshes in the study area; and (4) the elevation of Spartina alterniflora's seaward fringe was close to mean high water on neaps, and its landward boundary was slightly higher than mean high water. The salt marsh environment of the study area has been modified rapidly by the Spartina vegetation for the last 12 years.
Variations in paleoproductivity and the environmental implications over the past six decades in the Changjiang Estuary
JIN Haiyan, CHEN Jianfang, WENG Huanxin, LI Hongliang, ZHANG Weiyan, XU Jie, BAI Youcheng, WANG Kui
2010, (3): 38-45. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0035-x
Total organic carbon and organic carbon stable isotope, biogenic silica, chlorin were measured from a high resolution sediment core to indicate the variation in paleoproductivity and the environmental implications over the past decades (1942 to 1997) in the Changjiang Estuary. Based on these biomarkers, the shift in the phytoplankton community structure in the past decades was discussed in response to the long-term variations in nutrient concentrations and nutrient ratios. The results showed that the δ13C values varied from -26.15‰ to -19.5‰, suggesting the combined organic carbon sources of riverine and marine organisms. Based on the biogenic proxies, paleoproductivity changes were categorized into three stages:low production before 1950; an increase in production with the dominance of diatoms during 1950 to 1980, consistent with increasing of nutrient concentrations; a decrease in production after 1980 when the diatom production decreased while the production of non-silicious phytoplankton increased due to high nutrient inputs, and high N/P and P/Si ratios in the Changjiang Estuary. The sedimentation records also indicated that the riverine organic carbon increased since 1980.
Paleoenvironmental records from the northern South China Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum
GE Qian, CHU Fengyou, XUE Zuo, LIU J Paul, DU Yuansheng, FANG Yinxia
2010, (3): 46-62. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0036-9
Core ZHS-176 contains the paleoenvironmental records from the northern South China Sea (NSCS) since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A coupled approach based on clay mineral assemblages, planktonic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotopes, and calcium carbonate content is used to trace the sources of the fine-grained sediment and to investigate the paleoenviornmental evolution in this area. Clay mineral assemblages are dominated by illite (average about 39%) and chlorite (about 27%), which comes mainly from Taiwan and the East China Sea. Kaolinite, which accounts for about 13%, comes mainly from the Zhujiang (Pearl) River, and Luzon Island is the main source for smectite (about 21%). The planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic oscillations during the last glacial period are coeval with climate variations recorded in the Greenland ice core and Western Pacific sediment. These variations include the LGM, Heinrich event 1, Bφlling-Allerφd (B/A), and Younger Dryas. For the Holocene, three periods of strong precipitation (S1-S3) and three periods of weak precipitation (W1-W3) are identified. The oxygen isotopic record exhibits correlation with climate records from distant regions, including the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, providing evidence for global tele-connection among regional climate. A brief, negative planktonic foraminiferal carbon isotopic excursion during B/A reflects increased methane released from marine gas hydrate due to the rapid warming of the water. By comparing calcium carbonate content curves of the core ZHS-176 with these of other five boreholes lying above the lysocline, a remarkable low calcium carbonate event is found during the early Holocene in NSCS.
Cloning and mRNA expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)
MAO Yong, XU Bing, SU Yongquan, ZHANG Zhiwen, DING Shaoxiong, WANG Ding, WANG Jun
2010, (3): 63-73. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0037-8
Mammalian macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role as an indispensable mediator in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease like septicemia, but little is known about the role of MIF homologue in fish septicemia. The authors have cloned the MIF homologue in large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (LycMIF) using RACE approach. The full-length cDNA of LycMIF was 634 bases and contained an ORF of 345 bases encoding a protein of 115 amino acid residues. As demonstrated by RT-PCR and QRT-PCR assay, MIF mRNAs were constitutively expressed in 11 selected tissues and were abundant in brain and liver. Moreover, the LycMIF transcripts in the liver and head kidney were responsive to bacteria infection and could be significantly up-regulated. Our results provide the first direct evidence that fish MIF was implicated in pathogenesis of fish vibrosis and play an important role in response to bacteria infection.
Temporal species distributions of planktonic protist communities in semi-enclosed mariculture waters and responses to environmental stress
XU Henglong, ZHU Mingzhuang, JIANG Yong, AL-RASHEID Khaled A S
2010, (3): 74-83. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0038-7
In order to evaluate the relationships between temporal species succession of planktonic protists and physical-chemical parameters in semi-enclosed mariculture waters, species distributions in response to environmental stress were investigated in a shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, China during a complete shrimp-culture cycle (May to October 2002). A clear temporal succession in species distribution was found over the complete farming cycle. For example, before the introduction of the shrimp larvae there was low-variability of species distribution in the protist communities whereas during the stages immediately after, there was higher variability in species composition. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses demonstrate that 12 protist taxa (e.g., Gyrodinium spirale, Teleaulax acuta, Prorocentrum spp. and Mesodinium pupula) were related to the nutrients, in particular ammonia and phosphates, alone or in combination with water temperature. These results suggest that temporal variations in species distribution of planktonic protist communities might be used in assessing water quality of semi-enclosed mariculture waters.
Complete genome sequence and proteomic analysis of a thermophilic bacteriophage BV1
LIU Bin, WU Suijie, XIE Lianhui
2010, (3): 84-89. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0039-6
Viruses of thermophiles are of great interest due to their roles in gene transfer, global geochemical cycle and evolution of life on earth. However, the thermophilic bacteriophages have not been studied extensively. In this investigation, a typical bacteriophage BV1 was obtained from a thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus sp. 6k512, which was isolated from an inshore hot spring in Xiamen of China. The BV1 contained a double-stranded linear DNA of 35 055 bp, which encodes 54 open reading frames (ORFs). Interestingly, eight of the 54 BV1 ORFs shared sequence similarities to genes from human disease-relevant bacteria. Seven proteins of the purified BV1 virions were identified by proteomic analysis. Determination of BV1 functional genomics would facilitate the better understanding of the mechanism for virus-thermophile interaction.
Cloning and characterization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene of Alexandrium catenella (Dinoflagellate) with respect to cell growth
HUANG Jian, LIANG Shan, SUI Zhenghong, MAO Yunxiang, GUO Hao
2010, (3): 90-96. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0040-0
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been affecting negatively the shellfish and aquaculture industries around the world. Though a lot of efforts have been made to disclose the changes of environmental factors involved and their effects on the HABs events, the molecular mechanism of this process remains unclear. To address this problem, proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene (pcna) was isolated and characterized from Alexandrium catenella. It showed high homology to those of other dinoflagellates (89% and 91% homology to Pfiesteria piscicid and Pyrocystis lunula, respectively), and also 42%-43% homology to those of plant and animals. The expression level of pcna revealed by quantitative real time PCR was the lowest at the late lagging cell growth phase, increased to the highest at the late exponential phase, and then decreased at the stationary phase. Though the cell growth rate was also changing, no positive correlation between pcna expression level and cell growth rate was displayed throughout the whole cell growth stages (r2=0.024 6). However, the pcna expression level had the similar trend with the change of cell growth rate throughout the whole growing process, e.g., from increasing at the earlier cell growth stage to decreasing at the following stages, though slightly lagging to the latter.
Physical structure and vertical distribution of chlorophyll a in winter sea ice from the northwestern Weddell Sea, Antarctica
DAI Fangfang, WANG Zipan, YAN Xiaojun, LI Zhijun, ALLHUSEN Erika, DIECKMANN Gerhard
2010, (3): 97-105. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0041-z
The investigation on sea-ice biology in combination with physics, chemistry and ecology was carried out in the northwestern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the cruise ANT/XX Ⅲ-7 on board POLARSTERN in the austral winter (August-October) in 2006. The distribution of chlorophyll a was measured and related to sea ice texture. The mean concentrations of chlorophyll a in the sea ice varied considerably with ice texture. The concentration of chlorophyll a per core ranged from 2.10-84.40 μg/dm3 with a mean of 16.56 μg/dm3. And the value of R (chlorophyll a/gross chlorophyll) ranged from 0.79-0.83. These high winter chlorophyll values indicate that primary production is considerable and confirms that there is significant primary production in Antarctic sea ice during winter. Thus this constitutes a major proportion of southern ocean primary production and carbon flux before the sea ice retreats.
Analytical method of radiation by a wave energy device with dual rectangular floating bodies
WANG Wensheng, YOU Yage, ZHANG Yunqiu, WU Bijun, YE Yin
2010, (3): 106-115. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0042-y
The system with one floating rectangular body on the free surface and one submerged rectangular body has been applied to a wave energy conversion device in water of finite depth. The radiation problem by this device on a plane incident wave is solved by the use of an eigenfunction expansion method, and a new analytical expression for the radiation velocity potential is obtained. The wave excitation force is calculated via the known incident wave potential and the radiation potential with a theorem of Haskind employed. To verify the correctness of this method, an example is computed respectively through the bound element method and analytical method. Results show that two numerical methods. are in good agreement, which shows that the present method is applicable. In addition, the trends of hydrodynamic coefficients and wave force are analyzed under different conditions by use of the present analytical method.
Research Notes
Observations and analyses of floc size and floc settling velocity in coastal salt marsh of Luoyuan Bay, Fujian Province, China
WANG Aijun, YE Xiang, CHEN Jian
2010, (3): 116-126. doi: 10.1007/s13131-010-0043-x
In coastal environments, fine-grain sediments often aggregate into large and porous flocs. ElectroMagnetic Current Meters (EMCM) and Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST-ST) have been deployed within a Spartina alterniflora marsh of the Luoyuan Bay in Fujian Province, China, to measure the current velocity, the floc size and the settling velocity between 15 and 22 January 2008. During the observations, the near-bed water was collected in order to obtain the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and constituent grain size. Data show that:(1) the nearbed current velocities vary from 0.1 to 5.6 cm/s in the central Spartina alterniflora marsh and 0.1-12.5 cm/s at the edge; (2) the SSCs vary from 47 to 188 mg/dm3. The mean grain size of constituent grains varies from 7.0 to 9.6 μm, and the mean floc sizes (MFS) vary from 30.4 to 69.4 μm. The relationship between the mean floc size and settling velocity can be described as:ws=adb, in which ws is the floc settling velocity (mm/s), a and b are coefficients. The floc settling velocity varies from 0.17 to 0.32 mm/s, with a mean value of 0.26 mm/s, and the floc settling velocity during the flood tide is higher than that during the ebb tide. The current velocity and the SSC are the main factors controlling the flocculation processes and the floc settling velocity.