Volume 42 Issue 8
Aug.  2023
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Hao Wang, Qiangqiang Zhong, Fule Zhang, Suiyuan Chen, Hongyan Bao, Jing Lin, Dekun Huang, Tao Yu. Tracing surface seawater mixing and nutrient transport by 222Rn on the northern coast of Beibu Gulf, China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(8): 87-98. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2233-3
Citation: Hao Wang, Qiangqiang Zhong, Fule Zhang, Suiyuan Chen, Hongyan Bao, Jing Lin, Dekun Huang, Tao Yu. Tracing surface seawater mixing and nutrient transport by 222Rn on the northern coast of Beibu Gulf, China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(8): 87-98. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2233-3

Tracing surface seawater mixing and nutrient transport by 222Rn on the northern coast of Beibu Gulf, China

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2233-3
Funds:  The Scientific Research Foundation of the Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources under contract Nos 2023007 and 2020017; the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province under contract No. 2020J05010; the Foundation of Xiamen Institute of Marine Development under contract No. KFY202204; the Asian Cooperation Fund Project-Study on Typical Bay Ecological Protection and Management Demonstration.
More Information
  • The transport and diffusion of substances in seawater are limited by the mixing motion of water bodies, while the main forms of mixing in offshore water bodies are advection and eddy diffusion. The eddy diffusion process of water indicates the possible transport direction of dissolved substances. However, the complex environment in the coastal zone makes it difficult to quantitatively assess the water diffusion process. 222Rn is a useful tool to trace the diffusion process of water bodies. However, studies on the 222Rn distribution and its behavior in the Beibu Gulf are scarce. In this study, the activity distribution characteristics of 222Rn in surface seawater of the Guangxi shelf area of the Beibu Gulf were measured. Based on the one-dimensional, steady-state model, the vorticity diffusion coefficient of 222Rn in the horizontal direction was calculated as (0.42−2.13) × 108 m2/d, and the offshore fluxes of 222Rn under the influence of water mixing were calculated as 2.00 × 1012 Bq/d. Correspondingly, the horizontal transport fluxes of silicate, phosphate, nitrite and nitrate were 6.28 × 10−3 mol/(m2·d), 0.10 × 10−3 mol/(m2·d), 0.20 × 10−3 mol/(m2·d) and 4.15 × 10−3 mol/(m2·d), respectively. These results indicate that the study of eddy current diffusion in offshore marine water facilitates a deeper understanding of the water mixing process and nutrient transport and migration.
  • loading
  • Berelson W M, Hammond D E, Fuller C. 1982. Radon-222 as a tracer for mixing in the water column and benthic exchange in the southern California borderland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 61(1): 41–54. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(82)90036-X
    Blanton J, Werner F, Kim C, et al. 1994. Transport and fate of low-density water in a coastal frontal zone. Continental Shelf Research, 14(4): 401–427. doi: 10.1016/0278-4343(94)90026-4
    Braman R S, Hendrix S A. 1989. Nanogram nitrite and nitrate determination in environmental and biological materials by vanadium (III) reduction with chemiluminescence detection. Analytical Chemistry, 61(24): 2715–2718. doi: 10.1021/ac00199a007
    Cao Zhenyi, Bao Min, Guan Weibing, et al. 2019. Water-mass evolution and the seasonal change in northeast of the Beibu Gulf, China. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica (in Chinese), 50(3): 532–542
    Chen Xiaogang. 2019. Submarine groundwater discharge in mangroves, salt marshes, sandy beaches and karst ecosystems of typical coastal zones (in Chinese)[dissertation]. Shanghai: East China Normal University
    Chen Xiaogang, Lao Yanling, Wang Jinlong, et al. 2018a. Submarine groundwater-borne nutrients in a tropical bay (Maowei Sea, China) and their impacts on the oyster aquaculture. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19(3): 932–951
    Chen Xiaogang, Wang Jinlong, Cukrov N, et al. 2019. Porewater-derived nutrient fluxes in a coastal aquifer (Shengsi Island, China) and its implication. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 218: 204–211
    Chen Yizhan, Yang Wei, Cao Yonggang, et al. 2020. Seasonal characteristics of circulation in the northern Beibu Gulf. Journal of Guangdong Ocean University (in Chinese), 40(4): 68–74
    Chen Xiaogang, Zhang Fenfen, Lao Yanling, et al. 2018b. Submarine groundwater discharge-derived carbon fluxes in mangroves: an important component of blue carbon budgets?. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(9): 6962–6979
    Chung Y C. 1976. A deep 226Ra maximum in the Northeast Pacific. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 32(2): 249–257. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(76)90065-0
    Coachman L K, Walsh J J. 1981. A diffusion model of cross-shelf exchange of nutrients in the southeastern Bering Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, 28(8): 819–846
    Colbert S L, Hammond D E, Berelson W M. 2008. Radon-222 budget in Catalina Harbor, California: 1. Water mixing rates. Limnology and Oceanography, 53(2): 651–658. doi: 10.4319/lo.2008.53.2.0651
    Dai Minhan, Wang Lifang, Guo Xianghui, et al. 2008. Nitrification and inorganic nitrogen distribution in a large perturbed river/estuarine system: the Pearl River Estuary, China. Biogeosciences, 5(5): 1227–1244. doi: 10.5194/bg-5-1227-2008
    Diab H M. 2019. Accuracy and precision of RAD7 and RAD H2O accessories for SNIFF and NORMAL modes. Romanian Journal of Biophysics, 29(2): 1–11
    Feng Yu. 2021. Radionuclides in marine sediments from the Beibu Gulf: spatial patterns, transport pathway, and ionized radiation assessment (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Nanning: Guangxi University
    Fischer H B. 1980. Mixing processes on the Atlantic continental shelf, Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. Limnology and Oceanography, 25(1): 114–125. doi: 10.4319/lo.1980.25.1.0114
    Ge Jianzhong, Torres R, Chen Changsheng. 2020. Influence of suspended sediment front on nutrients and phytoplankton dynamics off the Changjiang Estuary: A FVCOM-ERSEM coupled model experiment. Journal of Marine Systems, 204: 103292. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2019.103292
    Guo Jing. 2020. Nitrogen biogeochemical processes and geochemical record of anthropogenic nutrient loading coastal regions of Beibu Gulf, Guangxi Province (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Nanning: Guangxi University
    Huh C A, Ku T L. 1998. A 2-D section of 228Ra and 226Ra in the Northeast Pacific. Oceanologica Acta, 21(4): 533–542. doi: 10.1016/S0399-1784(98)80036-4
    Kasemsupaya V, Tsubota H, Nozaki Y. 1993. 228Ra and its implications in the Seto Inland Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 36(1): 31−45
    Kaufman A, Trier R M, Broecker W S, et al. 1973. Distribution of 228Ra in the world ocean. Journal Geophysical Research, 78(36): 8827–8848. doi: 10.1029/JC078i036p08827
    Ku T L, Huh C A, Chen P S. 1980. Meridional distribution of 226Ra in the eastern Pacific along GEOSECS cruise tracks. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 49(2): 293–308. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(80)90073-4
    Li Chunyan, Cai Weijun. 2011. On the calculation of eddy diffusivity in the shelf water from radium isotopes: high sensitivity to advection. Journal of Marine Systems, 86(1–2): 28–33. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.01.003
    Li Bin, Tan Quzi, Li Leixian, et al. 2018. The research on contaminative conditions and pollutants fluxing into sea of major rivers in Guangxi Beibu Gulf in 2014. Guangxi Sciences (in Chinese), 25(2): 172–180
    Li Pingyang, Xue Rui, Wang Yinghui, et al. 2015. Influence of anthropogenic activities on PAHs in sediments in a significant gulf of low-latitude developing regions, the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea: Distribution, sources, inventory and probability risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 90(1–2): 218–226. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.10.048
    Liu Yi, Jiu Jimmy Jiao, Liang Wenzhao, et al. 2021. Inorganic carbon and alkalinity biogeochemistry and fluxes in an intertidal beach aquifer: Implications for ocean acidification. Journal of Hydrology, 595: 126036. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126036
    Martens C S, Kipphut G W, Klump J V. 1980. Sediment-water chemical exchange in the coastal zone traced by in situ Radon-222 flux measurements. Science, 208(4441): 285–288. doi: 10.1126/science.208.4441.285
    McKenzie T, Holloway C, Dulai H, et al. 2020. Submarine groundwater discharge: A previously undocumented source of contaminants of emerging concern to the coastal ocean (Sydney, Australia). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 160: 111519. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111519
    Men Wu, Wang Fenfen, Liu Guangshan. 2011. 224Ra and its implications in the East China Sea. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 288(1): 189–195. doi: 10.1007/s10967-010-0898-5
    Men Wu, Wang Fenfen, Zhang Yusheng, et al. 2013. Determining coastal mixing rates of western Taiwan Strait using 224Ra. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 295(1): 89–94. doi: 10.1007/s10967-012-1853-4
    Men Wu, Wei Hao, Liu Guangshan. 2006. 226Ra and 228Ra in the seawater of the western Yellow Sea. Journal of Ocean University of China, 5(3): 228–234. doi: 10.1007/s11802-006-0006-1
    Moore W S. 1998. Application of 226Ra, 228Ra, 223Ra, and 224Ra in coastal waters to assessing coastal mixing rates and groundwater discharge to oceans. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science-Earth and Planetary Sciences, 107(4): 343–349
    Moore W S. 2000. Determining coastal mixing rates using radium isotopes. Continental Shelf Research, 20(15): 1993–2007. doi: 10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00054-6
    Moore W S. 2010. The effect of submarine groundwater discharge on the ocean. Annual Review of Marine Science, 2: 59–88. doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-120308-081019
    Moore W S. 2015. Inappropriate attempts to use distributions of 228Ra and 226Ra in coastal waters to model mixing and advection rates. Continental Shelf Research, 105: 95–100. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2015.05.014
    Moore W S, Feely H W, Li Yuanhui. 1980. Radium isotopes in sub-Arctic waters. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 49(2): 329–340. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(80)90076-X
    Mwangi John Kennedy, Lee Wen-Jhy, Wang Lin-Chi, et al. 2016. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins. Environmental Pollution, 216: 924–934. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.07.001
    Rengarajan R, Sarin M M, Somayajulu B L K, et al. 2002. Mixing in the surface waters of the western Bay of Bengal using 228Ra and 226Ra. Journal of Marine Research, 60(2): 255–279. doi: 10.1357/00222400260497480
    Santos I R, Chen Xiaogang, Lecher A L, et al. 2021. Submarine groundwater discharge impacts on coastal nutrient biogeochemistry. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 2(5): 307–323
    Sarmiento J L, Feely H W, Moore W S, et al. 1976. The relationship between vertical eddy diffusion and buoyancy gradient in the deep sea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 32(2): 357–370. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(76)90076-5
    Su Ni. 2013. Tracing coastal water mixing processes and submarine groundwater discharge by radium isotopes (in Chinese)[dissertation]. Shanghai: East China Normal University
    Su Ni, Du Jinzhou, Li Ying, et al. 2013. Evaluation of surface water mixing and associated nutrient fluxes in the East China Sea using 226Ra and 228Ra. Marine Chemistry, 156: 108–119. doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2013.04.009
    Swarzenski P W, Izbicki J A. 2009. Coastal groundwater dynamics off Santa Barbara, California: Combining geochemical tracers, electromagnetic seepmeters, and electrical resistivity. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 83(1): 77–89
    Tang Lin. 2011. An analysis of the characteristics of SST variation in Guangxi Province and it’s relationship with the southwestlies monsoon on set (in Chinese)[dissertation]. Qingdao: Ocean University of China
    Torgersen T, Turekian K K, Turekian V C, et al. 1996. 224Ra distribution in surface and deep water of Long Island Sound: sources and horizontal transport rates. Continental Shelf Research, 16(12): 1545–1559. doi: 10.1016/0278-4343(96)00003-9
    Torgersen T, DeAngelo E, O’Donnell J. 1997. Calculations of horizontal mixing rates using 222Rn and the controls on hypoxia in western Long Island Sound, 1991. Estuaries, 20(2): 328–345. doi: 10.2307/1352348
    Wan Xianhui, Sheng Huaxia, Dai Minghan, et al. 2023. Epipelagic nitrous oxide production offsets carbon sequestration by the biological pump. Nature Geoscience, 16(1): 29–36. doi: 10.1038/s41561-022-01090-2
    Wang Yali. 2020. Carbon fluxes by submarine groundwater discharge and its optical characteristics in typical mangrove areas of the Beibu Gulf (in Chinese)[dissertation]. Shanghai: East China Normal University
    Wang Xiaoxiong, Chen Xiaogang, Liu Jianan, et al. 2021. Radon traced seasonal variations of water mixing and accompanying nutrient and carbon transport in the Yellow-Bohai Sea. Science of the Total Environment, 784: 147161. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147161
    Wang Xuejing, Li Hailong, Luo Xin, et al. 2016. Using 224Ra to estimate eddy diffusivity and submarine groundwater discharge in Laizhou Bay, China. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 308(2): 403–411. doi: 10.1007/s10967-015-4495-5
    Wu Minlan. 2014. The distribution feature of nutrients and the study of their influence on ecosystem in the northern Beibu Gulf (in Chinese)[dissertation]. Xiamen: Xiamen University
    Xing Na, Chen Min, Huang Yipu, et al. 2011. The cross-shelf exchange of surface nutrients in the Bering Sea elucidated from 228Ra tracer. Haiyang Xuebao (in Chinese), 33(2): 77–84
    Xiong Ping. 2019. Paleogeographic reconstructions and sedimentary response since Late Pleistocene in the northwestern margin of South China Sea (in Chinese)[dissertation]. Wuhan: China University of Geoscience
    Yang Shiying, Chen Bo, Li Peiliang. 2006. A study of the characteristics of water transport from the South China Sea into Beibu Bay via the Qiongzhou Strait in summer in terms of temperature and salinity data. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology (in Chinese), (1): 1–7
    Zhang Yan, Li Hailong, Wang Xuejing, et al. 2016. Estimation of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes in eastern Laizhou Bay, China using 222Rn. Journal of Hydrology, 533: 103–113. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.11.027
    Zhang Wenxia, Wu Hui, Zhu Zhuoyi. 2018. Transient hypoxia extent off Changjiang River Estuary due to mobile Changjiang River plume. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(12): 9196–9211. doi: 10.1029/2018JC014596
    Zheng Zhenzhen. 2018. The thermal response of marine ammonia oxidation (in Chinese)[dissertation]. Xiamen: Xiamen University
    Zheng Liwen, Zhai Weidong, Wang Lifang, et al. 2020. Improving the understanding of central Bohai Sea eutrophication based on wintertime dissolved inorganic nutrient budgets: Roles of North Yellow Sea water intrusion and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Environmental Pollution, 267: 115626. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115626
    Zhong Qiangqiang, Wang Hao, Wang Qiugui, et al. 2023. Study of Ra desorption processes in an estuary system with high-turbidity at the Southeast China. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 259–260: 107108
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(8)  / Tables(6)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (65) PDF downloads(8) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint