1988 Vol. 7, No. 2

Physical Oceanography,Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Theoretical wind wave frequency spectra in deep water——Ⅱ. Comparison and verification of spectra
Wen Shengchang(S. C. Wen), Chen Bohai, Guo Peifang, Zhang Dacuo
1988, (2): 159-169.
In this part of the present paper the theoretical spectra derived in Part Ⅰ are compared with the JONSWAP spectrum and field data, the agreement being encouraging.
Application of method of fuzzy sets to the analysis of water masses in the northern South China Sea
Li Fengqi, Su Yusong, Fan Liqun
1988, (2): 170-185.
Some methods of fuzzy sels are applied to the analysis of water masses in the north area of the South China Sea. In distinguishing water masses with the fuzzy clustering method, the authors propose a fuzzy similar relation based on Euclidean distance, and suggest a method for determining the number of water masses by the F-test, and further adjust rationally the boundaries of water masses and the membership relation of samples by the elastic classification method.
Numerical modelling of Lagrangian residual current in the Bohai Strait
Li Longzhang, Dou Zhenxing, Zhang Cunzhi
1988, (2): 186-194.
The Bohai Strait is the only passage-way of the semienclosed Bohai Sea into the outer ocean. The various dynamical processes have great effects on both sides of the strait, especially on the Bohai Sea. Tidal current dominates in the strait, and among the tidal components the M2 component tide is prevailing.
The seawater in the strait is homogeneous vertically almost the whole year because of strong tidal mixing. The M2 component tide was simulated numerically using two dimensional barotropical model, and the Eulerian tide-induced residual currents were also deduced. The results showed that the tidal currents were dominated by the coastal line and topography. There exist many eddies in the tide-induced residual current fields, particularly near the northern coast.
On the basis of the simulation of the tidal currents, the movements of the water particles in the strait were tracked by means of Lagrangian techniques. Consequently the Lagrangian residual currents were obtained. Somewhat similar to the Eulerian residual currents, the trend of magnitude appears also large in the north and small in the south.But the values of the Lagrangian residual currents and the Eulerian residual currents are not the same.For certain tidal current fields Eulerian residual currents are steady, but the Lagrangian residual currents are the functions of tide phase.
Marine Meteorology
Annual and interannual variations of large-scale circulation over the tropics as revealed from OLR data
Xie An, Chen Longxun, Takio Murakami
1988, (2): 195-202.
In this study, the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data of eight years have been used to investigate the annual and interannual variations of large-scale circulation over the tropics. The results of EOF analysis indicate that the first three eigenvectors reflect the essential features in OLR annual variation. However, they contribute little to the interannual change. In comparison, the fourth to the sixth components have very large year-to-year variations. The pronounced anomalies are located over the tropics with east-west dipole pattern. It implies that ENSO events are related closely to the variation of the Walker circulation.
Dynamics of air-sea planetary boundary layer under the geostrophic momentum approximation condition
Wang Chunzai, Qin Zenghao
1988, (2): 203-213.
In this paper, the air-sea planetary boundary is divided into three layers. With the aid of geostrophic momentum approximation, wind and current profiles, surface wind, surface wind stress and Ekman pumpinii in the atmosphere as well as in the ocean affected by the atmospheric baroclini-city, stratification and nonlinear effects are investigated systematically for an ocean of infinite depth. Meanwhile, the characteristics of the air-sea interaction is analyzed.
Changes of equatorial wind fields in the Western Pacific and El Nino
Gao Shiying, Wang Jingshu
1988, (2): 214-225.
The relationship between SST in the Eastern Pacific and equatorial wind fields in the Western Pacific is analysed by using COADS.
It is pointed out that in the year before El Nino, the continuative easterly anomalies and the meridional anomalies blowing from the Equator to both sides in the Equatorial Western Pacific cause the sea level in the Western Pacific to rise higher than in the Eastern Pacific and the sea level at the Equator to drop lower than on both sides of it. In the El Nino year, the westerly anomalies and the meridional anomalies blowing from both sides to the Equator bring warm water to build up around the Equator. At such times Kelvin waves are generated and they play an important role in raising SST in the Eastern Pacific. It is also emphatically pointed out that in the El Nino year the two maxima of the equatorial westerly anomalies, the two cross-equatorial air flows from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern one and the two maxima of the near-equatorial tropical cyclones in the Equatorial Western Pacific coincide with the two maxima of the positive SST anomalies in the Eastern Pacific.
Marine Chemistry
Analytical procedures to classify organic pollutants in natural waters, sediments, and benthic organisms
Jinshu Zheng, James G. Quinn
1988, (2): 226-236.
Procedures are described to extract, fractionate and analyze organic pollutants in environmental samples. The methods are based on organic solvent extraction to isolate the pollutants, liquid-solid adsorption chromatography to separate the various pollutants into four fractions, and analyses of the fractions using glass capillary gas-chromatography. Based on a number of considerations, the procedures were found suitable for the analyses of trace level organic pollutants in a variety of sample types. The data from these studies has provided important information on the biogeochemistry of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment.
The carbonate system in the central South China Sea
Li Xulu, Zhu Guofeng, Zhan Jinyuan
1988, (2): 237-246.
The Clements of the carbonate system (HCO3-, CO32-, CO2, ΣCO2 and PCO2) in the central South China Sea have been calculated by determining the pH values and total alkalinity of the seawater samples collected at 42 stations, combining simultaneously with the data of the temperatures, salinity and depths. The distributions of their characteristics have been briefly described and discussed. The saturation degrees (Ω) of calcite and aragonite in the studied area have also been evaluated. The ΩcaIc, and Ωarag. in the surface waters are about 5.8 and 3.9, respectively. The saturation depth is about 2200m for calcite and 1200m for aragonite. The lysocline in the studied area probably lies between 3000 m and 4000 m where the saturation degree of calcite is approximately 0.78.
A study on the distribution of 210Pb, 226Ra and total β radioactivity in estuary sediments
Chen Jinxing, Wu Shiyan, Zhang Pingqing
1988, (2): 247-252.
Determination on the content variation of 210Pb, 226Ra and total β radioactivity in estuary sediments of the Jiulongjiang River and the Changjiang River were made to study distributions of natural radioactive substances in the areas studied. Sources of radioactive substances were determined, and the transportation of bottom waters and sediments in the areas was searched according to the distributions.
A study on the exchange additivity of zinc in solid mixtures in seawater——Ⅰ. Exchange additivity of mixtures
Meng Xiaoguang, Zhang Zhengbin, Liu Liansheng
1988, (2): 253-260.
Exchange additivity of binary mixtures of hydrous metal oxides and clay minerals has been studied by investigating the relations of the zinc exchange-pH and the zinc partition coefficients to mixtures. The additive exchange equation is proposed to describe the exchange-pH relationship. The results suggest that zinc exchanges on the components in amorphous iron oxide/montmorrillonite, kaolinite/montmorrillonite, γ-Al00H/montmorrillonite, amorphous iron oxide/illite mixtures are additive. But the exchange of δ-MnO2/montmorrillonite is much less than its additive exchange. It is also shown that in the case of additive exchange the exchange parameters (Kmix{→SOH}Tmix) of the mixtures are equal in weight to the sum of those of each component of the solid mixtures.
A study on the exchange additivity of zinc in solid mixtures in seawater——Ⅱ.Stepwise exchange in δ-MnO2/montmorrillonite mixture
Meng Xiaoguang, Zhang Zhengbin, Liu Liansheng
1988, (2): 261-265.
In this study the zinc exchange process and the reason for the non-additive exchange of δ-MnO2/montmorrillonite have been investigated. The results suggest that with pH increasing from 2 to 8, the stepwise exchange of zinc occurs on δ-MnO2 and montmorrillonite in their mixture.At low pH zinc ions are bound on δ-MnO2, while at high pH, the exchange on montmorrillonite dominates the surface interaction in the mixture. The study demonstrates that the stepwise exchange and the heterogeneity of the binding sites on δ-MnO2 surface are the reason for the non-additive exchange. It is also shown that when δ-MnO2 amounts to 5%, zinc exchange on sea sediments is controlled by δ-MnO2.
Marine Geology and Geomorphology
Calcareous nannoplankton in the surface sediments of the East China Sea and its environmental implications
Zhang Jijun
1988, (2): 266-289.
Calcareous nannoplankton flora in the surface sediments of the East China Sea has been investigated many times based on isolated sample collections since 1980. In the present study, 73 surface sediment samples recovered from the East China Sea, extending from the estuaries to the Okinawa Trough (about 10-2000 m in depth of water), were chosen to investigate the floral distributional pattern and to discuss in greater detail the controlling factors. Thirty-nine species were identified under polarized microscope and SEM. In general, nannoplankton abundance and diversity increase progressively with the increase of depth. In estuaries and the inner shelf nannoplankton are extremely rare. The 50 m isobath is a sharp boundary for the development of calcareous nannoplankton. Another low floral concentration is encountered at the edge of the outer shelf where Pleistocene relict sediments outcrop. The nannoflora displays a scattered distributional pattern in the Okinawa Trough. Nannoplankton of larger sizes is mainly encountered beyond the 100 m isobath.
Marine Biology and Fishery
Studies on the egg, larval and juvenile development of Bostrichthys sinensis (Lacépède)
Li Huimei, Zhang Dan, Shi Pinhua
1988, (2): 290-303.
Artificial hatching and fry culture of Bostrichthys sinensis (Lacépède) has been successful under conditions of enclosed seawater circulation system in the Aquarium Lab, South China Sea Fish. Res. Inst, on the 13th of April, 1984. The development of each stage of the eggs, larvae and juveniles are described, and colour photographs of every development stage were taken. According to their physiological characteristics in each stage, necessary ecological conditions for the developments are preliminarily discussed.
Study of zooplankton ecology in Zhejiang coastal upwelling system-Species distribution and diversity of zooplankton
He Dehua, Yang Guanming, Shen Weilin, Liu Hongbin
1988, (2): 304-313.
The species distribution and diversity of zooplankton and the effects of hydrodynamic factors of Zhejiang coastal waters during the active period of upwelling are discussed.
High dominance (low diversity), high biomass and short food chain were found in the landward margins of the central region of the upwelling. There were evident interactions between the distribution of zooplankton and the environmental factors. The expression of these interactions is that different ecotypes of zooplankton adapt to different hydrological situations. There is significant positive correlation between the diversity indices of zooplankton and the mean water temperature in the survey area. It is noted that the vertical distribution of Calanus sinicus indicates to a certain extent the colder water environment of the upwelling (Fig. 7, Table 2, Reference (Hargreaves, 1981).
Research on the fishing season forecasting with the freedom adjustment of double correlation coefficient
Zhou Binbin
1988, (2): 314-320.
Usually, the stepwise regression method is used to select the forecasting factors in the most forecasting problems and the double correlation coefficient is used as a standard for the judge ment of the forecasting function. In fact, it cannot be decided whether the forecasting function is to be adopted or not only according to whether the double correlation coefficient is large or small. Here, we used the freedom adjusting method of the double correlation coefficient to study the season forecasting and used the method to select the factors for the fishing season forecasting function of the Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus) at the estuary of the Changjiang River. The test result of reforecasting is satisfactory and the greatest error is only two days as compared with the real fishing season. The forecasting result of the fishing season is also satisfactory.
Some investigation results in the sea region off the Wilkes Land, Antarctica
Miao Yutian, Yu Honghua
1988, (2): 321-321.
Study on the adsorptive complex wave of tin in seawater
Yuan Wenxia, Yang Sunkai
1988, (2): 322-322.
Investigation on the fishing ground and fishing period of the drift fishery of Spanish Mackerel in the Huanghai Sea and Bohai Sea during the spring season
Bi Shuwan, Yang Xuefang
1988, (2): 323-323.
China Editology Society of Science Periodicals established in Beijing
Weng Yongqing
1988, (2): 324-324.