2015 Vol. 34, No. 3

2015, Vol. 34, No. 03 Content
2015, 34(3): .
2015, Vol. 34, No. 03 Cover
2015, 34(3): .
2015, 34(3): .
Physical Oceanography,Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
An analytical validation for the attenuation of lateral propagating light in sea ice
ZHAO Jinping, LI Tao, EHN Jens, BARBER David
2015, 34(3): 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0628-5
The attenuation of lateral propagating light (LPL) in sea ice was measured using an artificial light source in the Canadian Arctic during the 2007/2008 winter. The apparent attenuation coefficient μ(λ) for lateral propagating light was obtained from the measured logarithmic relative variation rate. In this study an analytical solution based on the strict optical theories is developed to validate the measured result. There is a good consistency between theoretical solution and measured data, by which a quite simple but very rigorous relationship among the light source, measurement geometry, and measured irradiance is established. The attenuation coefficients acquired by measurement and theory are the diffusion attenuation as an apparent optical property of ice, independent of the light source and shining condition. The attenuation ability of sea ice should be caused by the microstructure of sea ice, such as crystal size, ice density, brine volume, air inclusion, etc. It also includes the leak from both interfaces by directional scattering. It is verified that the measuring approach is operational and accurate to measure the attenuation of the LPL. The solution from this study did not tell the connection among the extinction and the inclusions of sea ice theoretically because of insufficient understanding.
Deep water distribution and transport in the Nordic seas from climatological hydrological data
HE Yan, ZHAO Jinping, LIU Na, WEI Zexun, LIU Yahao, LI Xiang
2015, 34(3): 9-17. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0629-4
Deep water in the Nordic seas is the major source of Atlantic deep water and its formation and transport play an important role in the heat and mass exchange between polar and the North Atlantic. A monthly hydrological climatology—Hydrobase II—is used to estimate the deep ocean circulation pattern and the deep water distribution in the Nordic seas. An improved P-vector method is applied in the geostrophic current calculation which introduces sea surface height gradient to solve the issue that a residual barotropic flow cannot be recognized by traditional method in regions where motionless level does not exist. The volume proportions, spatial distributions and seasonal variations of major water masses are examined and a comparison with other hydrological dataset is carried out. The variations and transports of deep water are investigated based on estimated circulation and water mass distributions. The seasonal variation of deep water volume in the Greenland Basin is around 22×103 km3 whereas significantly weaker in the Lofoten and Norwegian Basins. Annual downstream transports of about 1.54×103 and 0.64×103 km3 are reported between the Greenland/Lofoten and Lofoten/Norwegian Basins. The deep water transport among major basins is generally in the Greenland-Lofoten-Norwegian direction.
Deep waters warming in the Nordic seas from 1972 to 2013
WANG Xiaoyu, ZHAO Jinping, LI Tao, ZHONG Wenli, JIAO Yutian
2015, 34(3): 18-24. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0613-z
The warming of deep waters in the Nordic seas is identified based on observations during Chinese 5th Arctic Expedition in 2012 and historical hydrographic data. The most obvious and earliest warming occurrs in the Greenland Basin (GB) and shows a coincident accelerated trend between depths 2 000 and 3 500 m. The observations at a depth of 3 000 m in the GB reveal that the potential temperature had increased from -1.30℃ in the early 1970s to -0.93℃ in 2013, with an increase of about 0.37℃ (the maximum spatial deviation is 0.06℃) in the past more than 40 years. This remarkable change results in that deep waters in the center of the Lofton Basin (LB) has been colder than that in the GB since the year 2007. As for the Norwegian Basin (NB), only a slight trend of warming have been shown at a depth around 2 000 m since the early 1980s, and the warming amplitude at deeper waters is just slightly above the maximum spatial deviation, implying no obvious trend of warming near the bottom. The water exchange rate of the Greenland Basin is estimated to be 86% for the period from 1982 to 2013, meaning that the residence time of the Greenland Sea deep water (GSDW) is about 35 years. As the weakening of deep-reaching convection is going on, the abyssal Nordic seas are playing a role of heat reservoir in the subarctic region and this may cause a positive feedback on the deep-sea warming in both the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic seas.
North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water simulation and future projection
XIA Ruibin, LIU Qinyu, XU Lixiao, LU Yiqun
2015, 34(3): 25-30. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0630-y
The present climate simulation and future projection of the Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific are investigated based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (GFDL-ESM2M). Spatial patterns of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the eastern subtropical North Pacific and the ESTMW are well simulated using this model. Compared with historical simulation, the ESTMW is produced at lighter isopycnal surfaces and its total volume is decreased in the RCP8.5 runs, because the subduction rate of the ESTMW decreases by 0.82×10-6 m/s during February-March. In addition, it is found that the lateral induction decreasing is approximately four times more than the Ekman pumping, and thus it plays a dominant role in the decreased subduction rate associated with global warming. Moreover, the MLD during February-March is banded shoaling in response to global warming, extending northeastward from the east of the Hawaii Islands (20°N, 155°W) to the west coast of North America (30°N, 125°W), with a maximum shoaling of 50 m, and then leads to the lateral induction reduction. Meanwhile, the increased northeastward surface warm current to the east of Hawaii helps strengthen of the local upper ocean stratification and induces the banded shoaling MLD under warmer climate. This new finding indicates that the ocean surface currents play an important role in the response of the MLD and the ESTMW to global warming.
Sea level rise projection in the South China Sea from CMIP5 models
HUANG Chuanjiang, QIAO Fangli
2015, 34(3): 31-41. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0631-x
Future potential sea level change in the South China Sea (SCS) is estimated by using 24 CMIP5 models under different representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. By the end of the 21st century (2081-2100 relative to 1986-2005), the multimodel ensemble mean dynamic sea level (DSL) is projected to rise 0.9, 1.6, and 1.1 cm under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, resulting in a total sea level rise (SLR) of 40.9, 48.6, and 64.1 cm in the SCS. It indicates that the SCS will experience a substantial SLR over the 21st century, and the rise is only marginal larger than the global mean SLR. During the same period, the steric sea level (SSL) rise is estimated to be 6.7, 10.0, and 15.3 cm under the three scenarios, respectively, which accounts only for 16%, 21% and 24% of the total SLR in this region. The changes of the SSL in the SCS are almost out of phase with those of the DSL for the three scenarios. The central deep basin has a slightly weak DSL rise, but a strong SSL rise during the 21st century, compared with the north and southwest shelves.
An assessment of arctic sea ice concentration retrieval based on “HY-2” scanning radiometer data using field observations during CHINARE-2012 and other satellite instruments
SHI Lijiang, LU Peng, CHENG Bin, KARVONEN Juha, WANG Qimao, LI Zhijun, HAN Hongwei
2015, 34(3): 42-50. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0632-9
A retrieval algorithm of arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) based on the brightness temperature data of “HY-2” scanning microwave radiometer has been constructed. The tie points of the brightness temperature were selected based on the statistical analysis of a polarization gradient ratio and a spectral gradient ratio over open water (OW), first-year ice (FYI), and multiyear ice (MYI) in arctic. The thresholds from two weather filters were used to reduce atmospheric effects over the open ocean. SIC retrievals from the “HY-2” radiometer data for idealized OW, FYI, and MYI agreed well with theoretical values. The 2012 annual SIC was calculated and compared with two reference operational products from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the University of Bremen. The total ice-covered area yielded by the “HY-2” SIC was consistent with the results from the reference products. The assessment of SIC with the aerial photography from the fifth Chinese national arctic research expedition (CHINARE) and six synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from the National Ice Service was carried out. The “HY-2” SIC product was 16% higher than the values derived from the aerial photography in the central arctic. The root-mean-square (RMS) values of SIC between “HY-2” and SAR were comparable with those between the reference products and SAR, varying from 8.57% to 12.34%. The “HY-2” SIC is a promising product that can be used for operational services.
Factors affecting spring bloom in the South of Cheju Island in the East China Sea
FU Dongyang, HUANG Zhaojun, ZHANG Yuanzhi, PAN Delu, DING Youzhua, LIU Dazhao, ZHANG Ying, MAO Zhihua, CHEN Jianfang
2015, 34(3): 51-58. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0633-8
A soil circulation occurs in the south of Cheju Island in the spring. Nutrients and its influence on chlorophyll a (Chl a) around the circulations were studied from April 9 to May 6, 2007. Spring bloom with elevated concentrations of Chl a was observed during the investigation. High concentrations of phosphate, nitrate and silicate at 0.6, 12, and 8 mmol/m3, respectively, were detected. A low water temperature prevented the growth of phytoplankton. Chl a concentrations in the study area might be strongly associated with the high silicate concentration.
PCA-based sea-ice image fusion of optical data by HIS transform and SAR data by wavelet transform
LIU Meijie, DAI Yongshou, ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Xi, MENG Junmin, XIE Qinchuan
2015, 34(3): 59-67. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0634-7
Sea ice as a disaster has recently attracted a great deal of attention in China. Its monitoring has become a routine task for the maritime sector. Remote sensing, which depends mainly on SAR and optical sensors, has become the primary means for sea-ice research. Optical images contain abundant sea-ice multi-spectral information, whereas SAR images contain rich sea-ice texture information. If the characteristic advantages of SAR and optical images could be combined for sea-ice study, the ability of sea-ice monitoring would be improved. In this study, in accordance with the characteristics of sea-ice SAR and optical images, the transformation and fusion methods for these images were chosen. Also, a fusion method of optical and SAR images was proposed in order to improve sea-ice identification. Texture information can play an important role in sea-ice classification. Haar wavelet transformation was found to be suitable for the sea-ice SAR images, and the texture information of the sea-ice SAR image from Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) loaded on ENVISAT was documented. The results of our studies showed that, the optical images in the hue-intensity-saturation (HIS) space could reflect the spectral characteristics of the sea-ice types more efficiently than in the red-green-blue (RGB) space, and the optical image from the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS-02B) was transferred from the RGB space to the HIS space. The principal component analysis (PCA) method could potentially contain the maximum information of the sea-ice images by fusing the HIS and texture images. The fusion image was obtained by a PCA method, which included the advantages of both the sea-ice SAR image and the optical image. To validate the fusion method, three methods were used to evaluate the fused image, i.e., objective, subjective, and comprehensive evaluations. It was concluded that the fusion method proposed could improve the ability of image interpretation and sea-ice identification.
Marine Geology
Ice rafting history and paleoceanographic reconstructions of Core 08P23 from southern Chukchi Plateau, western Arctic Ocean since Marine Isotope Stage 3
ZHANG Taoliang, WANG Rujian, XIAO Wenshen, CHEN Zhihua, CHEN Jianfang, CHENG Zhenbo, SUN Yechen
2015, 34(3): 68-75. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0609-8
Multiproxy investigations have been performed on Core 08P23 collected from the Chukchi Plateau, the western Arctic Ocean, during the Third Chinese National Arctic Expedition. The core was dated back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 by a combination of Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) carbon-14 dating and regional core correlation. A total of five prominent ice-rafted detritus (IRD) events were recognized in MIS 2 and MIS 3. The IRD sources in MIS 3 are originated from vast carbonate rock outcrops of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and clastic quartz in MIS 2 may have a Eurasian origin. Most δ18O and δ13C values of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) (Nps) in Core 08P23 are lighter than the average values of surface sediments. The lighter δ18O and δ13C values of Nps in the two brown layers in MIS 1 and MIS 3 were resulted from meltwater events; and those in the gray layers in MIS 3 were caused by the enhanced sea ice formation. The δ18O values varied inversely with δ13C in MIS 2 indicate that the study area was covered by thick sea ice or ice sheet with low temperature and little meltwater, which prevented the biological productivity and sea-atmosphere exchange, as well as water mass ventilation. The covaried light values of δ18O and δ13C in MIS 1 and MIS 3 were resulted from meltwater and/or brine injection.
The sedimentary source, planform stability and shore normal morphological change of the Xichong beach on the southern coast of the Dapeng Peninsula of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China
ZHANG Song, WANG Wei, HUANG Rihui, XU Liubing
2015, 34(3): 76-89. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0635-6
The coast of the Dapeng Peninsula has been honored as one of “the eight most beautiful coasts in China”. The most precious tourism resource for the peninsula is headland bay beaches, among which the beach at Xichong on the southern coast of the peninsula is the longest and the most important one. The information of the stability, sedimentary source and shape change of the beach is very important for maintaining the beach in terms of sustainable development of the peninsula. Heavy minerals in the sand of the beach and the inland stream at Xichong are compared with those of a nearby beach on the same coast to determine the beach sand source; with help of a computer software, MEPBAY, the equilibrium planforms of the beaches on the peninsula are compared with those of an island without rivers to evaluate the stream's effects on the beach stability; cross shore profiles along the Xichong beach are also surveyed in different seasons of a year to assess the annual shore normal beach changes affected by the stream input, and the relation between the equilibrium planform state and cross shore changes of the beach. It is shown that (1) stream is the main sedimentary source of the beach and the weathering materials of the rocky headlands on both sides of the bay transported by waves are the second source for the beach but it is limited, sand from an inner shelf is not the sedimentary source for the beach at present and was not even during the Holocene transgression; (2) the Xichong beach cannot reach static equilibrium around the entire bay shoreline, the segment of the shoreline where a stream outlet is located is in dynamic equilibrium, and the unstable section occurs in the wave shadow region in the lee of an offshore island; (3) no matter whether the section of the beach shoreline at Xichong is in an equilibrium state or not, it is eroded in the typhoon season and recovered after the season, the maximum change in erosion and accretion occurs in the unstable segment; (4) the Xichong beach can only have small sand body since it is supplied with sand mainly form inland streams, resulting in a possible danger in which sand loss induced by human activities or huge storms cannot be replenished naturally.
Ocean Engineering
A fuzzy quantification approach of uncertainties in an extreme wave height modeling
ZHANG Yi, CAO Yingyi
2015, 34(3): 90-98. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0636-5
A non-traditional fuzzy quantification method is presented in the modeling of an extreme significant wave height. First, a set of parametric models are selected to fit time series data for the significant wave height and the extrapolation for extremes are obtained based on high quantile estimations. The quality of these results is compared and discussed. Then, the proposed fuzzy model, which combines Poisson process and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) model, is applied to characterizing the wave extremes in the time series data. The estimations for a long-term return value are considered as time-varying as a threshold is regarded as non-stationary. The estimated intervals coupled with the fuzzy theory are then introduced to construct the probability bounds for the return values. This nontraditional model is analyzed in comparison with the traditional model in the degree of conservatism for the long-term estimate. The impact on the fuzzy bounds of extreme estimations from the non stationary effect in the proposed model is also investigated.
The study on the bottom friction and the breaking coefficient for typhoon waves in radial sand ridges—the Lanshayang Channel as an example
XU Zhuo, ZHANG Wei, LU Peidong, CHEN Kefeng
2015, 34(3): 99-107. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0637-4
Owing to the interactions among the complex terrain, bottom materials, and the complicate hydrodynamics, typhoon waves show special characteristics as big waves appeared at the high water level (HWL) and small waves emerged at low and middle water levels (LWL and MWL) in radial sand ridges (RSR). It is assumed that the mud damping, sandy bed friction and wave breaking effects have a great influence on the typhoon wave propagation in this area. Under the low wave energy, a mud layer will form and transport into the shallow area, thus the mud damping effects dominate at the LWL and the MWL. And high Collins coefficient (c around 1) can be applied to computing the damping effects at the LWL and the MWL. But under the high wave energy, the bottom sediment will be stirred and suspended, and then the damping effects disappear at the HWL. Thus the varying Collins coefficient with the water level method (VCWL) is implemented into the SWAN to model the typhoon wave process in the Lanshayang Channel (LSYC) of the RSR, the observed wave data under “Winnie” (“9711”) typhoon was used as validation. The results show that the typhoon wave in the RSR area is able to be simulated by the VCWL method concisely, and a constant wave breaking coefficient (γ) equaling 0.78 is better for the RSR where wide tidal flats and gentle bed slopes exist.
Numerical simulation and inversion of offshore area depth based on x-band microwave radar
WANG Li, WU Xiongbin, PI Xiaoshan, MA Ketao, LIU Jianfei, TIAN Yun
2015, 34(3): 108-114. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0627-7
A detection method of offshore area depth utilizing the x-band microwave radar is proposed. The method is based on the sea clutter imaging mechanism of microwave radar, and combined with dispersion equation of the liner wave theorem and least square method (LSM), consequently get the inversion results of water depth in the detected region. The wave monitoring system OSMAR-X exploited by the Ocean State Laboratory, Wuhan University, based on a microwave radar has proven to be a powerful tool to monitor ocean waves in time and space. Numerical simulation and inversion of offshore area depth are carried out here; since JONSWAP model can give description of stormy waves in different growth phase, it is suitable for simulation. Besides, some results from measured data detected by OSMAR-X x-band radar located at Longhai of Fujian Province, China, validates this method. The tendency of the average water depths inferred from the radar images is in good agreement with the tide level detected by Xiamen tide station. These promising results suggest the possibility of using OSMAR-X to monitor operationally morphodynamics in coastal zones. This method can be applied to both shore-based and shipborne x-band microwave radar.
A wave energy resource assessment in the China's seas based on multi-satellite merged radar altimeter data
WAN Yong, ZHANG Jie, MENG Junmin, WANG Jing
2015, 34(3): 115-124. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0627-6
Wave energy resources are abundant in both offshore and nearshore areas of the China's seas. A reliable assessment of the wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. First, for a water depth in offshore waters of China, a parameterized wave power density model that considers the effects of the water depth is introduced to improve the calculating accuracy of the wave power density. Second, wave heights and wind speeds on the surface of the China's seas are retrieved from an AVISO multi-satellite altimeter data set for the period from 2009 to 2013. Three mean wave period inversion models are developed and used to calculate the wave energy period. Third, a practical application value for developing the wave energy is analyzed based on buoy data. Finally, the wave power density is then calculated using the wave field data. Using the distribution of wave power density, the energy level frequency, the time variability indexes, the total wave energy and the distribution of total wave energy density according to a wave state, the offshore wave energy in the China's seas is assessed. The results show that the areas of abundant and stable wave energy are primarily located in the north-central part of the South China Sea, the Luzon Strait, southeast of Taiwan in the China's seas; the wave power density values in these areas are approximately 14.0-18.5 kW/m. The wave energy in the China's seas presents obvious seasonal variations and optimal seasons for a wave energy utilization are in winter and autumn. Except for very coastal waters, in other sea areas in the China's seas, the energy is primarily from the wave state with 0.5 m≤Hs≤4 m, 4 s≤Te≤10 s where Hs is a significant wave height and Te is an energy period; within this wave state, the wave energy accounts for 80% above of the total wave energy. This characteristic is advantageous to designing wave energy convertors (WECs). The practical application value of the wave energy is higher which can be as an effective supplement for an energy consumption in some areas. The above results are consistent with the wave model which indicates fully that this new microwave remote sensing method altimeter is effective and feasible for the wave energy assessment.