2017 Vol. 36, No. 9

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A dual-period response of the Kuroshio Extension SST to Aleutian Low activity in the winter season
YU Peilong, ZHANG Lifeng, LIU Hu, LIU Xing, ZHU Juan
2017, 36(9): 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1104-1
Based on our previous work, the winter sea surface temperature (SST) in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region showed significant variability over the past century with periods of ~6 a between 1930 and 1950 and ~10 a between 1980 and 2009. How the activity of the Aleutian Low (AL) induces this dual-period variability over the two different timespans is further investigated here. For the ~6 a periodicity during 1930-1950, negative wind stress curl (WSC) anomalies in the central subtropical Pacific associated with an intensified AL generate positive sea surface height (SSH) anomalies. When these wind-induced SSH anomalies propagate westwards to the east of Taiwan, China two years later, positive velocity anomalies appear around the Kuroshio to the east of Taiwan and then the mean advection via this current of velocity anomalies leads to a strengthened KE jet and thus an increase in the KE SST one year later. For the ~10 a periodicity during 1980-2009, a negative North Pacific Oscillation-like dipole takes 2-3 a to develop into a significant positive North Pacific Oscillation-like dipole, and this process corresponds to the northward shift of the AL. Negative WSC anomalies associated with this AL activity in the central North Pacific are able to induce the positive SSH anomalies. These oceanic signals then propagate westward into the KE region after 2-3 a, favoring a northward shift of the KE jet, thus leading to the warming of the KE SST. The feedbacks of the KE SST anomaly on the AL forcing are both negative for these two periodicities. These results suggest that the dual-period KE SST variability can be generated by the two-way KE-SST-AL coupling.
The Rhines effect on the geographical characteristics of altimeter-observed eddies
LIU Zhiliang, PANG Chongguang
2017, 36(9): 10-14. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1105-0
The Rhines effect may be regarded as an interaction between Rossby waves and turbulence, in which the Rossby waves may radiate away eddy energy when their frequencies are equal or larger than those of the turbulence, thereby deforming and eventually destroying the existing eddies. Through comparing eddy-scale velocity and long Rossby wave phase speed in the oceans, a generalized form of the Rhines effect is examined on the geographical characteristics of altimeter-observed eddies. The results show that the generalized Rhines effect has a much greater influence on eddy characteristics than its classical form, which only considers the simple beta effect due to the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity. The largest amount of eddies are detected in regions where eddy-scale velocity is larger than the critical Rossby-wave phase speed considering a generalized beta effect. The eddies in those regions can grow via an inverse kinetic energy cascade and have much larger amplitudes and sizes. The "eddy desert" regions outside of the tropical oceans, which have far fewer detected eddies and much weaker eddy amplitudes, lie in areas where the eddy-scale velocity is less than the critical Rossby-wave phase speed. In those regions, the generalized Rhines effect may be a possible mechanism of suppressing eddy growth.
The analysis of gales over the “Maritime Silk Road” with remote sensing data
LIU Yuanxin, YIN Xiaobin, XU Youping
2017, 36(9): 15-22. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1106-z
The 21st century "Maritime Silk Road" strategy is a significant part of the belt and road initiatives of China. The cognition and investigation of ocean environment is essential and necessary in these regions which will provide scientific reference for many fields such as navigation, ocean engineering, and disaster prevent and reduction. A high-resolution cross-calibrated multi-platform wind product is used to analyze gales over the Maritime Silk Road. The yearly mean speed and space distribution of gale, and the frequencies and trends of gale and extreme wind speed are analyzed. The results show that relatively high pools of gale are mainly located in the waters of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Sea, Indo-China Peninsula sea area, and Bay of Bengal in the summer. The gale frequency of the Somali Sea is more than 90%. Overall, the gale days increase year by year in the majority of the South China Sea and the northern Indian Ocean, especially in the autumn and the winter.
The multifractal spectrum of a sea clutter using a random walk model
HE Jingbo, XU Jianghu
2017, 36(9): 23-26. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1107-y
The radar echo signal of a sea clutter is nonlinear, nonstationary and time varying. A multifractal measure analysis can describe the local singularity of a physics system. The random walk model of a sea clutter scattering is analysed to disclose the intrinsic physical characteristics and laws of the sea clutter. Stochastic differential equations are given for the physical quality of the sea clutter. A diffusion process model is established using Itô formula. The singularity of the random walk model is tested by a multifractal spectroscopy, and the accuracy of this model is proven by the multifractal spectroscopy of a real-life IPIX radar data set. Thus, the random walk model is effective for describing the dynamics mechanism of the sea clutter.
An evaluation of new satellite-derived latent and sensible heat fluxes with moored buoy data, OAFlux and NCEP2 reanalysis products
ZHANG Lei, SHI Hanqing
2017, 36(9): 27-38. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1108-x
New satellite-derived latent and sensible heat fluxes are performed by using WindSat wind speed, WindSat sea surface temperature, the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) air humidity, and ECMWF air temperature from 2004 to 2014. The 55 moored buoys are used to validate them by using the 30 min and 25 km collocation window. Furthermore, the objectively analyzed air-sea heat fluxes (OAFlux) products and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis 2 (NCEP2) products are also used for global comparisons. The mean biases of sensible and latent heat fluxes between WindSat flux results and buoy flux data are -0.39 and -8.09 W/m2, respectively. In addition, the root-mean-square (RMS) errors of the sensible and latent heat fluxes between them are 5.53 and 24.69 W/m2, respectively. The RMS errors of sensible and latent heat fluxes are observed to gradually increase with an increasing buoy wind speed. The difference shows different characteristics with an increasing sea surface temperature, air humidity, and air temperature. The zonal average latent fluxes have some high regions which are mainly located in the trade wind zones where strong winds carry dry air in January, and the maximum value centers are found in the eastern waters of Japan and on the US east coast. Overall, the seasonal variability is pronounced in the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. The three sensible and latent heat fluxes have similar latitudinal dependencies; however, some differences are found in some local regions.
The research on boundary layer evolution characteristics of Typhoon Usagi based on observations by wind profilers
LIAO Fei, DENG Hua, GAO Zhiqiu, CHAN Pak-wai
2017, 36(9): 39-44. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1109-9
Vertically exploring the characteristics of the typhoon boundary layer (TBL) plays an important role in recognizing typhoon structure. The boundary layer radial direction and tangential wind characteristics of Typhoon Usagi based on the observational data of three boundary layer wind profiler stations along the route of Typhoon Usagi (No. 1319) and by combining with sounding data. The results show that: (1) maximum tangential wind appears in the vicinity of the eye area of Usagi, and it basically maintains a height of around 1 800 m when Usagi keeps a strong typhoon level, with the rapidly decreasing strength of Usagi after it lands, the speed of the maximum tangential wind and its vertical range both decrease; (2) the height of the maximum tangential wind is close to that of the inflow layer top of the typhoon, and is greater than that of the boundary layer estimated on the basis of Richardson number or potential temperature gradient, while the height of mixed layer judged on the basis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or its gradient is usually low; (3) the the boundary layer height can reach higher than 2 100 m before Usagi lands. When the typhoon level or above is achieved, the boundary layer height observed by various stations does not change much, basically staying at between 1 200 and 1 600 m. With the decreasing strength of Usagi after its landfall, the boundary layer height rapidly drops.
A case study of the consistency problem in the inverse estimation
WEI Yanzhou, KANG Xianbiao, PEI Yuhua
2017, 36(9): 45-51. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1110-3
Inverse technique is a widely used method in oceanography, but it has a problem that the retrieved solutions often violate model prior assumptions. To tune the model has consistent solutions, an iteration approach, which successively utilizes the posterior statistics for next round inverse estimation, is introduced and tested from a real case study. It is found that the consistency may become elusive as the determinants of solution and noise covariance matrices become zero in the iteration process. However, after several steps of such operation, the difference between posterior statistics and the model prior ones can be gradually reduced.
Geochemical and microbial characters of sediment from the gas hydrate area in the Taixinan Basin, South China Sea
GONG Junli, SUN Xiaoming, LIN Zhiyong, LU Hongfeng, LU Yongjun
2017, 36(9): 52-64. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1111-2
The Taixinan Basin is one of the most potential gas hydrate bearing areas in the South China Sea and abundant gas hydrates have been discovered during expedition in 2013. In this study, geochemical and microbial methods are combinedly used to characterize the sediments from a shallow piston Core DH_CL_11 (gas hydrate free) and a gas hydrate-bearing drilling Core GMGS2-16 in this basin. Geochemical analyses indicate that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) which is speculated to be linked to the ongoing gas hydrate dissociation is taking place in Core DH_CL_11 at deep. For Core GMGS2-16, AOM related to past episodes of methane seepage are suggested to dominate during its diagenetic process; while the relatively enriched δ18O bulk-sediment values indicate that methane involved in AOM might be released from the "episodic dissociation" of gas hydrate. Microbial analyses indicate that the predominant phyla in the bacterial communities are Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria), while the dominant taxa in the archaeal communities are Marine_Benthic_Group_B (MBGB), Halobacteria, Thermoplasmata, Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Group C3 and MCG. Under parallel experimental operations, comparable dominant members (Firmicutes and MBGB) are found in the piston Core DH_CL_11 and the near surface layer of the long drilling Core GMGS2-16. Moreover, these members have been found predominant in other known gas hydrate bearing cores, and the dominant of MBGB has even been found significantly related to gas hydrate occurrence. Therefore, a high possibility for the existing of gas hydrate underlying Core DH_CL_11 is inferred, which is consistent with the geochemical analyses. In all, combined geochemical and microbiological analyses are more informative in characterizing sediments from gas hydrate-associated areas in the South China Sea.
Basin modeling in the initial stage of exploration: a case study from the North Subbasin of the South Yellow Sea Basin
PANG Yumao, ZHANG Xunhua, GUO Xingwei, XIAO Guolin, HAN Zuozhen
2017, 36(9): 65-78. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1112-1
Basin modeling has become an important tool for analyzing sedimentary basins. The North Subbasin of the South Yellow Sea Basin is filled with thick Meso-Cenozoic terrigenous deposits during the rift evolution stage. The accumulation of data and achievements of geological investigations in recent years have provided the preconditions for basin modeling. The necessary parameters and geological elements for simulations are collated and summarized. Modeling of tectono-thermal evolution is performed and the related trend in heat flow is reconstructed and calibrated. The heat flow value commences from an average level of 61 mW/m2 during Middle-Late Jurassic, rises to about 80 mW/m2 from circa 145 Ma to circa 74 Ma, and then undergoes a gradual decline to 65 mW/m2 until the end of Oligocene.Three evolutionary phases, namely, the initial rifting phase, syn-rifting phase, and post-rifting phase, have been identified. The modeling results show that the North Subbasin generally enters into a stage of strong rifting during Cretaceous and undergoes rapid subsidence until the Late Cretaceous, then follows by a stage of moderate rifting during the Paleogene. The input and general workflow involved in 3-D modeling are introduced. Reconstruction of the petroleum system in the North Subbasin reveals that the threshold depth of hydrocarbon generation is located near the top of the Paleogene Funing formation, and the underlying Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks have reached or exceeded peak oil generation and have almost completed the generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons. The main generation and expulsion in the Jurassic source rocks take place during the syn-rifting and post-rifting phases, whereas the peak generation and expulsion in the Cretaceous and Paleogene source rocks take place during the post-rifting phase. Although the study area is still a relatively less explored sedimentary basin, the results of modeling can provide valuable information for exploration. A preliminary discussion of the main uncertainty factors is also presented.
The application of three-dimensional seismic spectral decomposition and semblance attribute to characterizing the deepwater channel depositional elements in the Taranaki Basin of New Zealand
LI Quan, WU Wei, YU Shui, KANG Hongquan, TONG Liqing, CAO Xiangyang, LIU Xiaolong
2017, 36(9): 79-86. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1113-0
In the past few years, three-dimensional (3-D) seismogram has become an essential tool for the interpretation of subsurface stratigraphy and depositional systems. Seismic stratigraphy in conjunction with seismic geomorphology has elevated the degree to which seismic data can facilitate geological interpretation, especially in a deepwater environment. Technologies such as time slicing and interval attribute analysis can enhance geomorphological interpretations, and, when integrated with stratigraphic analyses, can yield insights regarding distribution of seal and reservoir facies. Multiple attributes corendering can further bring out features of geological interest that other technologies may overlook. This method involves corender spectral decomposition components (SDC) with semblance attributes to describe the distribution of deepwater channel elements and the boundaries of deepwater sinuous channel. Applying this technology to four elements is observed: (1) point-bars, (2) migration of channel meander loops, (3) channel erosion/cut, and (4) avulsion. The planview expression of the deepwater channel ranges from low sinuosity to high sinuosity. Furthermore, this technology has enabled interpreters to visualize details of complex depositional elements and can be used to predict net-to-gross ratio in channel systems, which can be incorporated into borehole planning for exploration as well as development needs to improve risk management significantly. The technology is applied to the study area in an effort to illustrate the variety of interpretation technologies available to the geoscientist.
The biogeographical distribution of tree species-abundance and its relation to climatic factors in mass islands
LI Xiaoming, WU Chengzhen, GU Wu, YE Ran, ZHANG Haibo, QI Ping, WANG Shengqiang, ZHOU Siying, WEI Yongjie, CAI Yanhong
2017, 36(9): 87-90. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1103-2
Tree species-abundance in forests is a function of geographical area and climate, although it is not clear whether such relationships apply to mass islands. We examined the spatial pattern of tree species in mass islands along the coast of Zhejiang, East China Sea using the Preston model, to identify the relationships between tree communities and climatic conditions. The results show that: (1) the biogeographical distribution of tree species-abundance conformes to Preston’s log-normal pattern, and is in accordance with the findings in both tropical rainforests and estuarine forests; (2) the climatic factors related to tree communities in mass islands are similar to that of the subtropical zone, including the major species of evergreen needle-leaf, broad-leaf and deciduous broad-leaf forests. We conclude that the Preston model can be applied to the trees of mass islands and thus facilitate the systematic ecological researches of vegetation species’ composition in subtropical zone.
An available formula of the sandy beach state induced by plunging waves
JIANG Changbo, WU Zhiyuan, CHEN Jie, DENG Bin, LONG Yuannan, LI Lianjie
2017, 36(9): 91-100. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1114-z
Laboratory experiments are performed to explore the response rule of a sandy beach profile under plunging wave on a non-uniform sediment-bed slope. The initial beach slope of combination of 1/10 and 1/20 is exposed to regular waves and cnoidal waves respectively. The free surface elevation, process of wave propagation, wave breaking, uprush and backwash and the change of a cross-shore beach profile are measured and recorded. The beach profile under the regular waves action exhibits two parts: a sandbar profile and a beach berm profile, and only one typical profile transformation under the cnoidal waves action is obtained, which is the beach berm profile. In the laboratory experiments, it is found that the beach states under wave action related to the previous factors. In addition, they are related to the characteristic of breaking waves such as the breaking intensity of the plunging wave. A concept about the characteristic angle of the plunging wave has been put forward through the observation and analysis of the phenomenon of the laboratory experiment. A qualitative analysis about the sediment transport carrying by currents generated from the plunging wave and the state of beach profile under the wave action has been done. The quantitative analysis about the relationship between the characteristic angle and Irribarren number has been done. An available formula of equilibrium states for the sandy beach induced by the plunging wave has been established based on the relationship between Irribarren number and the beach profile. By fitting these experimental results and others' experimental results to three lines, the three fitting coefficients can be calculated in their formula respectively. The recommended empirical formulas can divide three states of a beach morphology profile obviously, which include a depositive beach, an erosive beach and an intermediate beach.
An ocean current inversion accuracy analysis based on a Doppler spectrum model
BAO Qingliu, ZHANG Youguang, LIN Mingsen, GONG Peng
2017, 36(9): 101-107. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1115-y
Microwave remote sensing is one of the most useful methods for observing the ocean parameters. The Doppler frequency or interferometric phase of the radar echoes can be used for an ocean surface current speed retrieval, which is widely used in spaceborne and airborne radars. While the effect of the ocean currents and waves is interactional. It is impossible to retrieve the ocean surface current speed from Doppler frequency shift directly. In order to study the relationship between the ocean surface current speed and the Doppler frequency shift, a numerical ocean surface Doppler spectrum model is established and validated with a reference. The input parameters of ocean Doppler spectrum include an ocean wave elevation model, a directional distribution function, and wind speed and direction. The suitable ocean wave elevation spectrum and the directional distribution function are selected by comparing the ocean Doppler spectrum in C band with an empirical geophysical model function (CDOP). What is more, the error sensitivities of ocean surface current speed to the wind speed and direction are analyzed. All these simulations are in Ku band. The simulation results show that the ocean surface current speed error is sensitive to the wind speed and direction errors. With VV polarization, the ocean surface current speed error is about 0.15 m/s when the wind speed error is 2 m/s, and the ocean surface current speed error is smaller than 0.3 m/s when the wind direction error is within 20° in the cross wind direction.
Nonparametric estimations of the sea state bias for a radar altimeter
MIAO Hongli, JING Yujie, JIA Yongjun, LIN Mingsen, ZHANG Guoshou, WANG Guizhong
2017, 36(9): 108-113. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1116-x
To estimate the sea state bias (SSB) for radar altimeter, two nonparametric models, including a Nadaraya-Watson (NW) kernel estimator and a local linear regression (LLR) estimator, are studied based on the Jason-2 altimeter data. Selecting from different combinations of the Gaussian kernel function, spherical Epanechnikov kernel function, a fixed bandwidth and a local adjustable bandwidth, it is observed that the LLR method with the spherical Epanechnikov kernel function and the local adjustable bandwidth is the optimal nonparametric model for the SSB estimation. The comparisons between the nonparametric and parametric models are conducted and the results show that the nonparametric model performs relatively better at high-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. This method has been applied to the HY-2A altimeter as well and the same conclusion can be obtained.