1988 Vol. 7, No. 1

Physical Oceanography,Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Theoretical wind wave frequency spectra in deep water——Ⅰ. Form of spectrum
Wen Shengchang(S. C. Wen), Zhang Dacuo, Chen Bohai, Guo Peifang
1988, (1): 1-16.
In this part ot the paper theoretical wind-wave spectra nave been derived by (1) expressing the spectrum in series composed of exponential terms; (2) assuming that the spectrum satisfies a high order linear ordinary differential equation; (3) introducing proper parameters in the spectrum; and (4) making use of some known charateristics of wind-wave spectrum, for instance, the law governing the equilibrium range. The spectrum obtained contains the zero order moment of the spectrum ω0, the peak frequency ω0 and the ratio R=ω/ω0 (ω being the mean zero-crossing frequency) as parameters. The shape of the nondimensional spectrum Š(ω)=ω0S(ω)/ω0(ω=ω/ω0) changes with R and theoretically reduces to a Dirac delta function δ(ω-1) when R=1. A spectrum of simplified form is given for practical uses, in which R is replaced by a peakness factor P=Š(1).
The application of wave refraction-diffraction model with friction
Jiang Decai, Ye Anle
1988, (1): 17-26.
In this paper a refraction-diffraction model with friction is used to compute wave characteristics in a region near a certain port. Comparing with the results from refraction model, and with the data observed during a typhoon in 1985, it is found that the characteristics from the refraction-diffraction model with friction are reasonable, and that the results are in rather good agreement with observations. Thus it can be concluded that the model is effective for computing coastal wave characteristics over complicated bottom topography.
The effect of horizontal Coriolis force on internal wave-mean flow interaction
Fan Zhisong
1988, (1): 27-42.
In this paper, an improvement and revision of the theory of Müller (1974, 1976), has been made under two conditions:(1) the horizontal component of the Coriolis force has been taken into account in the equations of motion for the internal wave field; and (2) the role of internal waves with frequencies close to the inertial frequency has been considered. The values of the viscosity coefficients and the diffusivity coefficients obtained in this paper are:vh=8×104 cm2s-1,vc=-1.8×104 cm2s-1, vv=4.3×103 cm2s-1, dc=1.2×106 cm2s-1, d'c=-2.5×104 cm2s-1.The appearance of the cross-diffusion (vc) of momentum is a natural result from the effect of the horizontal Coriolis force. Therefore the role of the horizontal shear of the mean flow cannot be absolutely separated from that of the vertical shear. So far in testing Müller's theory, the approximation of effective wave stress obtained by Ruddick and Joyce (1979) was extensively used, but it has to be revised under the conditions of this paper. The revised approximation shows that the internal waves with low frequencies close to the inertial frequency play an important role in the effective wave stress.
Marine Meteorology
Characteristics of satellite cloud maps of typhoon movement in midsummer of 1985
Bao Chenglan
1988, (1): 43-56.
There were 8 typhoons over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in August of 1985. Their movement characteristics were mainly northward or recurvature northward. At the same time, a complex movement of 3 typhoons clustering was observed. In this paper, the typhoon movement tendency is studied by using satellite cloud maps. The westward and northward tendencies can be distinguished clearly. Based on this rule, typhoon movement can be forecasted 12-48 h before. Some characteristics models of the typhoon moving northward or recurving northward on the satellite cloud maps are also given in this paper.
Aerological climate of Xisha
Wang Dehan
1988, (1): 57-67.
The vertical distribution and seasonal variation of air temperature, humidity, static stability and Richardson number over Xisha Island are investigated based on 7-year records by means of time-altitude cross section, and harmonic and regression analyses. Mean data on height above sea level, air temperature, specific humidity, relative humidity and air density at standard-pressure surfaces are given respectively in terms of the annual average and the typhoon seasonal average of the South China Sea respectively.
Marine Chemistry
Polarographic determination of orthophosphate in seawater
Chen Liyi
1988, (1): 68-73.
In the system HCl-Sb (Ⅲ)-ammonium molybdatc-acetone-butanone, PO43-, Sb (Ⅲ) and Mo (VI) form ternary heteropoly acid. This ternary heteropoly acid anion is adsorbed on the dropping mercury electrode and reduced quickly into heteropoly blue. The process of electrochemical reaction will produce a sensitive polarographic wave with peak potential -0.42V (vs S.C.E.). The detection limit is 6×10-8 mol/l. Variable coefficients are 10% and 3% for 0.1 μmol/l and 1 μmol/l respectively.
This method is sensitive, accurate and extremely rapid for analysis of seawater.
Fibrous adsorbent containing amidoxime and carboxyl groups and adsorption of uranium
Fu Wentong, Luo Bingkun, Chen Huizhen, Zhuang Wanjin, Liu Shiyu, Chen Lianzhi
1988, (1): 74-81.
Through introducing amidoxime and carboxyl groups into polyacrylonitrile fiber, a fibrous adsorbent with high capacity and fast adsorption rate was obtained, which could adsorb 4.6 mg uranium/g in 10 days from natural seawater. The influence of the functional group content on equilibrium adsorption capacity Xm and adsorption rate constant K of the adsorbent was studied, thus indicating that the contents of amidoxime and carboxyl groups correlated with Xm and K respectively. It is concluded that the amidoxime group is of reactive adsorption, while the carboxyl group is of promotion in the adsorption of uranium. In this paper, the mechanism of uranium adsorption on the fibrous adsorbent is deduced and the chelating structure of adsorption species is discussed with molecule orbit theory.
Study of apparent complexing capacities of trace heavy-metals in the Huanghe River Estuary
Sun Mingyi, Zhang Hao, Zhang Zhengbin
1988, (1): 82-93.
By the electroanalysis method combining the complexation titrating technique with the investigation of ip~Ea* characteristic curves, this paper measures apparent complexing capacities of trace heavy-metals in water samples from the Huanghe River Estuary. The results show that the order of apparent complexing capacities of trace heavy-metals in the samples is
Cu > Cd > Pb,
and that apparent complexing capacities of near shore sample are higher than those far from shore. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the dissociation of organic ligands and the adsorption effect of cell walls (cells being treated with acid and seawater respectively) are investigated. The reduction (on electrodes) mechanism of species of trace heavy-metals in seawater is approached by ip~Ea* characteristic curves.
Marine Geology and Geomorphology
Quaternary marine ostracoda on the west coast of the Bohai Sea
Wang Qiang, Li Yude, Tian Guoqiang, Lin Fang
1988, (1): 94-103.
According to the results of analysis of the marine ostracoda biofacies from over 160 drilled holes on the west coast of the Bohai Sea, i.e. Hebei and Shandong Provinces, Tianjin, and the east part of Beijing, the present paper is a discussion of their palaeoecological and stratigraphigical significance. The investigation of ostracoda thanatocoenoces in the modern coastal zone suggests that the distribution of marine ostracoda has been controlled by the salinity and depth of water. The study of Quaternary marine ostracoda should be concentrated mainly on the determination of their biofacies and palaeogeographigical conditions, so as to provide evidence for the determination of transgression range, palaeoshoreline and sca-level changes.
Holocene strata along the coastal area of eastern Guangdong
Li Pingri, Huang Zhenguo, Zhang Zhongying, Zong Yongqiang
1988, (1): 104-114.
The data of about 1700 drill holes are correlated, of which 47 drill sections are discussed comprehensively for chronology and sedimentology, and the characteristics and changes of sporo-pollen are analysed. The authors consider that the Holocene strata along the coast of eastern Guangdong can be divided into five formations. The Holocene began 12 000 years ago; the fluvial facies gravel, the striped weathered clay and the "old red sand" serves as the boundary between the Holocene and the Pleistocene.
Marine Biology and Fishery
On a new species of deep-water Siphonophora, Lensia multicristoides sp. nov. from middle South China Sea
Zhang Jinbiao, Lin Mao
1988, (1): 115-118.
In this paper, a new species of deep-water Siphonophora, Lensia multicristoides sp. nov., collected from the middle South China Sea is described and compared with some similar species in the genus.
The decomposition rates of dead plant materials of two species of Spartina and the changes in their nutritive components
Jiang Fuxing, Wang Weizhong, Zhao Ming, Zhong Chongxin
1988, (1): 119-125.
The detritus from the decomposition of dead plant materials of Spartina with great biomass provides abundant food for the heterotrophs in estuarine and nearshore coastal waters. It is for this reason that the decomposition rates of S. anglica and S. alterniflora near the estuary of obsolete Huanghe River were studied. The changes in nutritive components during decomposition are also studied.
Results showed that the decomposition rate of dead leaves of S. anglica on ultra-low marsh was about 90% for the first year. In the eighth month, it was 80% and 76% respectively for S. anglica and S. alterniflora on low marsh. Protein content of the two species of Spartina increased in the course of decomposition, with a maximum increment of 100% or more. The energy value also increased, whereas cellulose content decreased markedly. The percentage content of ash and lipid varied significantly with zonal differences.
The patterns of distribution of chlorophyll a and primary production in coastal upwelling area off Zhejiang
Ning Xiuren, Liu Zilin
1988, (1): 126-136.
Investigations of Chi. a and primary production were carried out in the coastal upwelling area (27°30'-30°30'N, west to 124°00'E) off Zhejiang in August and October 1981. The high-value areas of Chl. a were in nearshore waters and on top of the upwelling front, where Chl. a occurred the maximum 7.40 mg/m3. With the average of 1.25 g C/m2·d, the primary production was more than 2.0gC/m2·d incenteral area of the upwelling, and the whole surveyed area's output was about 4.4×104 tons C/d.
Marine Engineering
Statistical analysis of uplift pressures on the vertical breakwater
Dong Jitian, Chen Xueying
1988, (1): 137-147.
By using the field measured data for the surface waves and the uplift pressures acted on the vertical breakwater at the observation station, the single spectra for the surface waves and the uplift pressures at various test points as well as the cross spectra, the functions of frequency response and coherence were calculated and thereby, they revealed the statistical characteristics of the uplift pressure acted on vertical breakwater and the relationship in which how the above-mentioned characteristics were related to the frequency, the phase and the magnitude among the surface waves in front of breakwater.
Moreover, the observation equipment for the uplift pressure and distribution of location for test points were introduced also in this paper.
A study of numerical model equations of circulations in East China Sea
Sun Daoyuan, Dong Yongting
1988, (1): 148-157.
Recently many authors have attepmted to model circulations in East China Sea by numerical means, for example, Xi et al1),2). (henceforth Ref.[1] is referred to as A and[2] as B respectively), Yuan et al. and Chio. We had raised questions in regard to the correctness of the governing equations used in A, as well as their choice of boundary conditions. Comparing numerical solution of A with that of B which employed a correct form of governing equations (but with an incorrect value for the bottom friction coefficient), B asserted that the governing equations used in A were correct. It is, therefore, appropriate to have a discussion on the formulation of proper equations.