2007 Vol. 26, No. 4

Display Method:
The IOD signal in the upper-ocean Indonesian Throughflow since the mid-1970s
LAN Jian, SUN Shuangwen, HONG Jieli
2007, (4): 1-6.
On the basis of simple ocean data assimilation (SODA) reanalysis product, the interannual variability of upper-ocean Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) volume transport since the mid 1970s is examed. The wavelet analysis shows a second prominent interannual oscillation with a period of about 2~4 a. To reveal any relationship between this band-scale oscillation of upper-ocean ITF and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), the correlation and wavelet analyses are used. The correlation coefficient between the upper-ocean ITF and the IOD reaches -0.40 with upper-ocean ITF lagging an IOD index by eight months. The wavelet power spectrum of upper-ocean ITF shows similar structure to that of the IOD index. And the evolution of IOD is reproduced by lagged correlation between the upper-ocean ITF and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) over the Indian Ocean. It suggests that the 2~4 a band-scale oscillation of upper-ocean ITF is related uniquely to the IOD over the tropical Indian Ocean.
A survey of baroclinic tides in the Beibu Gulf in the South China Sea
CHEN Ju, WANG Dongxiao, SHI Ping, DU Yan
2007, (4): 7-19.
The principal characteristics of the tides are investigated by a shipborne acoustic Doppler current Profiler at a fixed station located in the Beibu Gulf from 4 to 14 April 2003. Data analysis indicates that the diurnal tidal currents dominate local current variations at the observing site. Except the barotropic M2 constituent, four principal tides comprise both back-and-forth barotropic and baroclinic tidal currents. The baroclinic tidal ellipse parameters vary with depth, showing complicate features, rather than monotonous features being figured. For baroclinic tidal constituents, vertical modes are different to each other. Similarly, the semi-major axes of the tidal constituents vary with depth. In the lower layer, a nonlinear regression approach is used to calculate and obtain the SEMA profiles of diurnal tidal constituents. Results show that in the thin bottom boundary layer, all of the parameters vary drastically with depth, totally distinguished from the vertical profiles above.
Seasonal variability of tropical cyclones generated over the South China Sea
WANG Guihua, WANG Hui, QI Yiquan
2007, (4): 20-28.
The seasonal variability of tropical cyclones (CTCs) generated over the South China Sea (SCS) from 1948 to 2003 is analyzed. It peaks in occurrence in August and few generate in late winter (from January to March). The seasonal activity is attributed to the variability of atmosphere and ocean environments associated with the monsoon system. It is found that the monsoonal characteristics of the SCS basically determine the region of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in each month.
The characteristic differences of tropical cyclones forming over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea
YUAN Jinnan, WANG Dongxiao, LIU Chunxia, HUANG Jian, HUANG Huijun
2007, (4): 29-43.
The best track dataset of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the South China Sea (SCS) from 1977 to 2005 during the satellite era, the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset and the extended reconstructed sea surface temperature dataset are employed in this study. The main climatological characteristics of tropical cyclone formation over the WNP and the SCS are compared. It is found that there is obviously different for the locations of tropical cyclone origins, achieving the lowest central pressure and termination points between over the WNP and over the SCS. The annual number of tropical cyclones forming over the SCS is obviously less than over the WNP, and there is a significant negative correlation with the correlation coefficient being -0.36 at the 5% significance level between over the WNP and over the SCS. The mean speed of tropical cyclone moving is 6.5 m/s over the WNP and 4.6 m/s over the SCS. The mean lowest central pressure of tropical cyclones is obviously weaker over the SCS than over the WNP. The tropical cyclone days per year, mean total distance and total displacement of tropical cyclone traveled over the WNP are all obviously longer than those over the SCS. Tropical cyclone may intensify to Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale 5 over the WNP, but no tropical cyclone can intensify to Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale 3 over the SCS. The changing ranges of the radii(R15,R16) of the 15.4 m/s winds them and the 25.7 m/s winds over the WNP are obviously wider than those over the SCS, and the median values of the radii over the WNP are also larger than those over the SCS. For the same intensity of tropical cyclones, both radii have larger medians over the WNP than over the SCS. The correlations of annual mean tropical cyclone size parameters between over the WNP and over the SCS are not significant. At the same time, the asymmetric radii of tropical cyclones over the WNP are different from those over the SCS.
Spatial information recognizing of ocean eddies based on virtual force field and its application
LI Ce, DU Yunyan, SU Fenzhen, YANG Xiaomei, XU Jun
2007, (4): 44-52.
A new approach to detecting ocean eddies automatically from remote sensing imageries based on the ocean eddy's eigen-pattern in remote sensing imagery and "force field-based shape extracting method" is proposed. First, the analysis on extracting eddies' edges from remote sensing imagery using conventional edge detection arithmetic operators is performed and returns digitized vector edge data as a result. Second, attraction forces and fusion forces between edge curves were analyzed and calculated based on the vector eddy edges. Thirdly, the virtual significant spatial patterns of eddy were detected automatically using iterative repetition followed by optimized rule. Finally, the spatial form auto-detection of different types of ocean eddies was done using satellite images. The study verified that this is an effective way to identify and detect the ocean eddy with a complex form.
Elemental geochemical records of seafloor hydrothermal activities in the sediments from the Okinawa Trough
ZHAI Shikui, YU Zenghui, DU Tongjun
2007, (4): 53-62.
The major and minor element contents in the sediment core H9 from the hydrothermal fields of the Okinawa Trough show a sharp change at the depth of 80 cm. The elements enriched in the upper 80 cm core are those enriched in the hydrothermal deposits and in the surface sediments recovered from the hydrothermal fields in the trough, which indicates the input of hydrothermal materials. Comparing with other hydrothermal sediments from Mid-ocean Ridges or the Lau Basin, the degree of the enrichment of elements iron, copper,cobalt, and nickel is relatively low. However, the enrichment of elements manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury is remarkable. The average contents of these elements in the upper 80 cm core sediments are three to six times those in the lower section, and 3~12 times those in the surface sediments which are not influenced by hydrothermal activities. Hydrothermal activities have contributed significant manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury to the sediments, and these elements are distinct indicators for the hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough. The significant enrichment of these elements in Core H9 upward from the depth 80 cm indicates the start or the significant enhancing of the hydrothermal activity in this area at about 5 740 aB.P. The average accumulation rate of manganese during this period is about 40 461 μg/(cm2·ka), which is similar to the hydrothermal sediments in the Lau Basin or the East Pacific Rise.
Characteristics of platinum-group elements in basalts from spreading axis of Mariana Trough
CAO Zhimin, ZHENG Jianbin, ZHOU Meifu, AN Wei, QI Liang
2007, (4): 63-71.
Total platinum-group elements (PGEs) abundances in basalts from the spreading axis of Mariana Trough ranged from 0.418×10-9 to 1.022×10-9, and primitive mantle-normalized PGE patterns are of positive slope showing the relative enrichment of PPGE (platinum,palladium,rhodium) and gold relative to IPGE. Compared with other mantle-originated rocks, these basalts have lower PGE contents and wider ranges of primitive mantle-normalized ratios of palladium content to iridium one,palladium content to platinum one and palladium content to gold one exhibiting relative platinum and iridium depletion. Characteristics of PGE patterns indicated that the studied Mariana Trough basalts originated from low partial melting, and the MORB mantle beneath the spreading center had been contaminated by the arc-island mantle. In the aspect of trace elements, Mariana Trough basalts showed the enrichment of LILE, lead and LREE, indicating that they had been influenced by subduction compositions. All these demonstrated that Mariana Trough basalts are products of partial melting from a mixed mantle (the contamination of MORB mantle by arc-island mantle).
Reproductive ecology of the mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris
HONG Wanshu, CHEN Shixi, ZHANG Qiyong, WANG Qiong
2007, (4): 72-81.
The reproductive ecology of the mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris was investigated during the spawning season in the Funing Bay, Fujian, China. The fish burrows were basically Y-shaped and had two openings onto the mudflats. Part of the intersection at the center of the burrow was dilated to form a "spawning chamber". The dissolved oxygen concentrations (0.40~0.65 mg/dm3)of water 15 cm deep inside the burrows were much lower than those (5.96~6.19 mg/dm3) of intertidal pool water. Water temperatures inside the burrows were much lower than those of intertidal pools. Field investigations indicated that eggs were laid on the inner wall and ceiling of the spawning chamber by means of filamentous attachments, and a male stayed inside the burrows to guard it. Field investigations also suggested that fish of both sexes constructed mud burrows by themselves but that the spawning chamber was made only in the male burrow. The male attracted a female to his burrow for mating and spawning. There was no water in the spawning chamber, and thus the eggs were exposed to the air in the chamber. Changes in spawning readiness and gonadosomatic index indicated that synchronization of spawning was related to the semi-lunar periodicity, and this is the first report of this relationship in the mudskippers.
Effect of UV-B radiation on the feeding behavior of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis
FENG Lei, LI Xin, WANG Jinhe, HAN Honglei, TANG Xuexi, CHEN Xiguang
2007, (4): 82-92.
Effect of UV-B radiation on the feeding behaviour of marine zooplankton is important to assessing the health harm of marine ecosystem due to the gradually enhanced UV-B radiation in air. However, there are a few studies on this topic. The feeding behavior of the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, under the treatment of UV-B radiation on five species of microalgae, i.e., Chlorella sp., Tetraselmis chuii, Isochrysis galbana Park 8701, Chaetoceros muelleri Lermumerman, and Nitzschia clostertum, was studied. The results showed that the filtering and feeding rates of the rotifer decreased significantly with the dose increase of UV-B radiation when fed with five species of microalgae respectively (P<0.05) which indicates UV-B radiation inhibits the feeding activities of the rotifer on microalage. The mixed culture experiments shows the rotifer preferred to feed Chlorella sp., then C. muelleri,I. galbana, N. clostertum and T. chuii in turn if without UV-B radiation. Under the highest dose of UV-B radiation treatment (2.70 kJ/m2), the rotifer preferred to feed C. muelleri, then Chlorella sp., N. clostertum, I. galbana and T. chuii in turn. Chlorella sp., I. galbana and C. muelleri became the more favorite foods of the rotifer while T. chuii and N. clostertum became less favorite foods. The change of feeding rate and feeding selectivity of zooplankton driven by the enhanced UV-B radiation will lead to the change in the structure of phytoplankton community.
Phylogenetic diversity and phenotypic characterization of cultivable bacterioplankton isolated from polar oceans
ZENG Yinxin, LI Huirong, YU Yong, CHEN Bo, ZHENG Tianling
2007, (4): 93-103.
A set of 27 marine planktonic bacteria isolated from the polar regions was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and physiological and biochemical testing. More than half of these bacteria were positive for caseinase, gelatinase and β-glucosidase, and could utilize glucose, maltose or malic acid as carbon source for cell growth. Twelve isolates expressed nitrate reduction activities. Except for one antarctic isolate BSw10175 belonging to Actinobacteria phylum, these isolates were classified as γ-Proteobacteria, suggesting that γ-Proteobacteria dominated in cultivable marine bacterioplankton at both poles. Genus Pseudoalteromonas was the predominant group in the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea, and genus Shewanella dominated in cultivable bacterioplankton in the Prydz Bay. With sequence similarities above 97%, genus Psychrobacter was found at both poles. These 27 isolates were psychrotolerant, and significant 16S rDNA sequence similarities were found not only between arctic and antarctic marine bacteria (>99%), but also between polar marine bacteria and bacteria from other aquatic environments (≥ 98.8%), including temperate ocean, deep sea, pond and lake, suggesting that in the polar oceans less temperature-sensitive bacteria may be cosmopolitan and have a bipolar, even global, distribution at the species level.
Circadian rhythms in the growth and reproduction of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida and gametogenesis under different photoperiods
ZHANG Zhihuai, PANG Shaojun
2007, (4): 104-111.
Circadian growth rhythm of the juvenile sporophyte of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida was measured with the computer-aided image analysis system in constant florescent white light under constant temperature (10℃). The growth rhythm persisted for 4 d in constant light with a free-running period of 25.6 h. Egg release from filamentous gametophytes pre-cultured in the light-dark regime was evaluated for six consecutive days at fixed time intervals in constant white light and 12 h light per day. Egg release rhythm persisted for 3 d in both regimes, indicating the endogenous nature. Temporal scale of egg release and gametogenesis in 18, 16, 12 and 8 h light per day were evaluated respectively using vegetatively propagated filamentous gametophytes. Egg release occurred 2 h after the onset of dark phase and peaked at midnight. Evaluation of the rates of oogonium formation, egg release or fertilization revealed no significant differences in four light-dark regimes, indicating the great plasticity of sexual reproduction. No photoperiodic effect in gametogenesis in terms of oogonium formation and egg release was found, but fertilization in short days was significantly higher than in long days. Results of this investigation further confirmed the general occurrence of circadian rhythms in intertidal seaweed species.
The effect of the causative algae of large-scale HAB in the East China Sea on egg hatching of Argopecten irradians, and population growth of Brachionus plicatilis and Moina mongolica
CHEN Taoying, YAN Tian, WANG Liping, ZHANG Bin, ZHOU Mingjiang
2007, (4): 112-122.
The impacts of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu and Alexandrium catenella Balech, causative species of the large-scale HAB in the East China Sea, were studied under laboratory conditions. According to bloom densities, the effects of monoculture and mixture of the two species were examined on the egg-hatching success of Argopecten irradians Lamarck, and the population growth of Brachionus plicatilis Müller and Moina mongolica Daday. The results showed that monoculture of A. catenella had a significant inhibition on the egg hatching success of A. irradians, and the population growth of B. plicatilis and M. mongolica. The median effective densities (ED50) inhibiting the egg hatching success of A. irradians for 24 h and the population growth of B. plicatilis and M. mongolica for 96 h were 800, 630, and 2 400 cells/cm3, respectively. Monoculture of P. donghaiense has no such inhibitory effect on the egg hatching success of A. irradians; P. donghaiense at lower suitable densities could sustain the population growth of B. plicatilis (1×104~3×104cells/cm3) and M. mongolica (2×104~5×104cells/cm3); P. donghaiense at higher densities had significantly adverse effect on the population growth of B. plicatilis (4×104~10×104cells/cm3) and M. mongolica (10×104cells/cm3). When the two algae were mixed according to bloom densities, P. donghaiense at suitable densities to some extent could decrease the toxicity of A. catenella to B. plicatilis and M. mongolica. The results indicated that the large-scale HAB in the East China Sea could have adverse effect on zooplankton, and might further influence the marine ecosystem, especially when there was also Alexandrium bloom.
Effects of UVB on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu
LIU Jingwen, JIAO Nianzhi, CAI Huinong, HONG Huasheng
2007, (4): 123-131.
PCNA has been considered as a useful marker for the estimation of growth rates of marine phytoplankton at the species level. Since dinoflagellates are noted for having many prokaryotic features in that they are the only eukaryotes to have permanently condensed chromosomes as well as lacking histones and a nucleosome, the sensitivity to UVB radiation and the validity of PCNA as a maker of growth rate in dinoflagellate need to be evaluated.Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu was investigated to valuate the UVB sensitivity in relation to cellular and molecular aspects of PCNA as a growth indicator.The effects of UVB radiation on PCNA were studied using the methods of western blots technology and whole-cell immunoflurescence with one mono-antibody. UVB changed the cell morphology, halted the growth and increased the cell size, even caused cell death to a certain extent after treatment with UVB radiation in P. donghaiense. Compared with the control, treating the algal cultures in exponential phases with UVB radiation for 24 h caused chromatin release and increases in protein levels of PCNA.
Research Notes
Geochemical records of phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay sediments-Implications for environmental changes in recent hundred years
DAI Jicui, SONG Jinming, LI Xuegang, YUAN Huamao, ZHENG Guoxia, LI Ning
2007, (4): 132-147.
Phosphorus is a key element and plays an important role in global biogeochemical cycles. The evolution of sedimentary environment is also influenced by phosphorus concentrations and fractions as well as phosphate sorption characteristics of the marine sediments. The geochemical characteristics of phosphorus and their environmental records were presented in Jiaozhou Bay sediments. Profiles of different forms of phosphorus were measured as well as the roles and vertical distributions of phosphorus forms in response to sedimentary environment changes were investigated. The results showed that inorganic phosphorus (IP) was the major fraction of total phosphorus (TP); phosphorus which is bound to calcium, iron and occluded phosphorus, as well as the exchangeable phosphorus were the main forms of IP, especially calcium-phosphorus, including detrital carbonate-bound phosphorus (Det-P) and authigenic apatite-bound phosphorus (ACa-P), are the uppermost constituent of IP in Jiaozhou Bay sediments. Moreover, the lead-210 chronology technology was employed to estimate how much phosphorus was buried ultimately in sediments. And the research showed that the impacts of human activities have increased remarkably in recent years especially between the 1980s and 2000. According to research, the development of Jiaozhou Bay environment in the past hundred years can be divided into three stages:(1) before the 1980s characterized by the relatively low sedimentation rate, weak land-derived phosphorus inputs and low anthropogenic impacts; (2) from the 1980s to around 2000, accelerating in the 1990s, during which high sedimentation rates, high phosphorus abundance and burial fluxes due to the severe human activities impacted on the whole environmental system; (3) after 2000, the period of the improvement of environment, the whole system has been improved including the decreasing sedimentation rates, concentration and the burial fluxes of phosphorus.
Comparative studies on some genetic characteristics among four large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) populations
WANG Dexiang, WANG Jun, DING Shaoxiong, SU Yongquan
2007, (4): 148-155.
The genetic structure was compared among four large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) populations, an important aquaculture species in China. RAPD and ISSR results show that the genetic distances between domestic stocks and their wild counterparts are significantly larger than those between the three wild stocks. The sequence of mtDNA cyt b shows that the three wild populations share the same sequence, with differences in the four bases from the cultured stock:two transitions[57(C-T), 291(G-A)] and two transversions[66(C-G),223(A-C)]. Cluster analysis reveals that the domestic stock has diverged from its parental wild stock[Min-Yuedong (Fujian Province-eastern Guangdong Province, China) stock]. Results demonstrate that 20 a of domestication of the Pseudosciaena crocea stock has resulted in significant genetic changes.
Preliminary study of the retention mechanism of planktonic copepods in the Jiulong Estuary in China
SHANG Xu, WANG Guizhong, LI Shaojing, GUO Donghui
2007, (4): 156-163.
The horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of five planktonic copepods,Calanus sinicus, Acartia pacifica, Tortanus derjugini, Acartiella sinensis and Pseudodiaptomus poplesia, predominant in the Jiulong Estuary, were investigated from May 2003 to April 2004. The results showed that the distribution of these copepods was related to the tidal period but that each species had its own specific pattern. C. sinicus showed no tidal vertical migration behavior and was thought to be a non-resident species in this estuary. Among Acartia pacifica,T. derjugini,Acartiella sinensis, more individuals occurred in the surface than in the bottom waters during flood tide, and the pattern was reversed during ebb tide. The epibenthic copepod P. poplesia usually remained in the bottom waters in the upstream part of the estuary, but it displayed strong tidally-oriented vertical migration in the middle reaches of the estuary.Taking into account the hydrographic characteristics of the Jiulong Estuary,it was hypothesized that the planktonic copepods in this estuary had more or less adopted the mechanism of vertically migrating to the surface waters during flood tide in order to make use of the inflowing tide, and then sinking to the bottom during ebb tide to avoid being carried out of the estuary by net outflow.