1988 Vol. 7, No. 3

Physical Oceanography,Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Theoretical wind wave frequency spectra in shallow water
Wen Shengchang(S. C. Wen), Guo Peifang, Zhang Dacuo, Chen Bohai
1988, (3): 325-343.
The method developed by Wen et al. (1988a) for deriving theoretical wind wave frequency spectrum in deep water is extended to the case of water of finite depth, in which a parameter η=H/d is introduced, where H and d represent the average wave height and water depth respectively. The derived spectra reduce to those in deep water when η=0. The case of η=1/2 corresponds to waves impending to break because of the effect of the bottom. Simplified forms of spectra are given. The theoretical results agree with the observed spectra well.
Numerical computation of tidal currents in the eastern and southern parts of the East China Sea
Fang Guohong, Yang Jingfei
1988, (3): 344-355.
Numerical simulation on diurnal and semidiurnal tidal currents is made for the eastern and southern parts of the East China Sea bounded by the Tsushima, islands of Kyushu and Ryukyu in the east and extending to the central Taiwan Strait in the south. The numerical computation shows that the rapid variation in the seabed topography near the Okinawa Trough may cause computational instability and this instability can be removed by setting a suitable lateral eddy viscosity. The computed results are in good agreement with the observations and indicate that the tidal currents in the greater part of the area studied rotate clockwise. An M2 current-amphidromic point exists in the southern part of the Korea Strait and another one appears in the west of Okinawa with less certainty. K1 and M2 cotidal charts based on the observed and computed tidal currents in the sea and the observed tides on the coast are also given.
The amplifying effect of southern continental shelf of the East China Sea on semidiurnal tides
Zhou Tianhua, Chen Zongyong
1988, (3): 356-359.
The coast of Zhejiang Province is a zone of maximum tidal ranges in China. One of the causes is the influence of the adjacent continental shelf. A model is presented in this paper, whose theory suggests that the amplitudes of semidiurnal tides should be amplified on the southern continental shelf of the East China Sea, while those of diurnal tides should not. The values computed from the equations are basically in agreement with observations.
A preliminary study on mean-field decomposition
Ma Helai, Su Yusong
1988, (3): 360-368.
Two kinds of the empirical orthogonal function analysis method for decomposing the mean-field are developed and a comparison is made between them. It is proved that the mean-field can be decomposed using eigenvectors obtained from anomaly-field decomposition, and that more information can be obtained. An example of sea bottom mean temperature analysis shows its remarkable effect in depicting the distribution features of various factors, such as cold water mass, currents and radiation.
A few problems concerning the efficiency of the method are discussed and two matrices of relationship which represent the space-time characteristics of the field are derived. The formulae of space-time transformation are obtained conveniently.
Marine Meteorology
Preliminary experiments from a nonsteady atmosphere-earth surface coupled anomaly model
Lin Benda, Xu Xiaodong, Wang Shaowu
1988, (3): 369-380.
In this paper, a nonsteady atmosphere-earth surface coupled anomaly model is used to conduct both comparative experiments on the physical processes of model and monthly forecasting experiments for anomaly fields. It is shown that after further improvement it is hopeful for the anomaly model with two-hour time step to do monthly forecasting of anomaly fields by taking long period time integration. The comparative experiments show that the interaction between the atmosphere and the surface has significant influence on the long range variation for both atmospheric geopotential anomalies and surface temperature anomalies, and transient eddy transport has also certain effects on the variation of anomaly fields.
The reliability of the wind speed, air temperature and humidity observed on ship
Liu Lianji, Zhao Yongping
1988, (3): 381-387.
Using data of wind speed, air temperature and humidity recorded simultaneously on board and the on the small buoy, the latter is considered as criterion, the paper has discussed the influence of the body of ship on the meteorological data. Owing to the disturbance and the influence of heat radiation from the body of ship, the temperature observed on board is higher by about 2℃ than on buoy, and the relative humidity lower by 10%, wind speed observed on the mast is not only irregular but is less than that on the buoy, the error of which would be 3 m/s. The paper therefore suggests that the data observed on the deck in daytime, especially in fair weather after midday, is less reliable. The reliability of data decreases simultaneously with the increase of the body of ship in size.
In addition, this paper also proposes that more reasonable observing points chosen on board should be the key to obtain reliable data. By analysis, it is believed that the meteorological data observed on ship's bow or upwind outside of gunwale is comparatively reliable.
Marine Chemistry
A study on the exchange additivity of zinc in solid mixtures in seawater——Ⅲ. Stepwise isotherms of the mixture
Meng Xiaoguang, Zhang Zhengbin, Liu Liansheng
1988, (3): 388-394.
Zinc exchange isotherms in mixtures of hydrous metal oxides and clay minerals have been reported. The relationship between the isotherms of the mixtures and the isotherms of their components is studied. The isotherms of the mixtures are stepwise. And the formation constants for the zinc exchange in the mixtures are calculated. The results show that the stepwise equilibrium formation constants and the saturation exchange capacities for the zinc exchange in kaolinite/mon-tmorrillonite, amorphous iron oxide/montmorrillonite and γ-AlOOH/montmorrillonite mixtures are equal in weight to those of their components. The interactions between fresh iron oxyhydroxide and δ-MnO2 reduce the metal binding sites of the mixtures, while the stepwise equilibrium constants are not affected by the interactions.
Research on hydrous titanium oxide absorbent extracting uranium from seawater by means of XRD, SEM and EDAX
Chen Huizhen
1988, (3): 395-401.
Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) adsorbents containing the same water content, which were prepared under different temperature cond'tions, were studied by means of valuing uranium-extracting activity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersing analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The main results obtained are as follows. The content of anatase crystallite varies progressively with the change of preparation temperature. There are intimate relationships among crystallite content, surface appearance and uranium-extracting activity. The uranium-extracting activity will be optimal when the content proportion of crystallite to amorphism is moderate. There are considerable differences in chemical composition between HTO surface phase and bulk phase, between surface matrix and microzone, and between one microzone and another. An important factor affecting the uranium-extracting capacity is the absorption competition among so many elements in seawater, especially the covering of calcium insoluble salt on HTO surface.
The features of temporal variation and the distribution of dissolved oxygen in the western Taiwan Strait
Yi Ruizao, Lin Jianyun, Lu Meiluan, Wang Weiqiang, Huang Shanggao
1988, (3): 402-411.
The distribution of dissolved oxygen in the western Taiwan Strait was discussed by using the method of harmonic analysis. The periodic variation of dissolved oxygen in seawatcr can be expressed by the Fourier series:
where A0 is annual average value; Am and φm are amplitude and phase of constituent, respectively. The distribution of A0 and the annual and semiannual constants (Am, φm) of dissolved oxygen in the surface, bottom and vertical section of the western Taiwan Strait were described. The effect of the various currents on the distribution of dissolved oxygen was also discussed.
Marine Geology and Geomorphology
Investigation and study on deep-sea cosmic spherules from the North Pacific
Peng Hanchang, Liu Zhengkun, Chai Zhifang, Zhuang Shijie, Yu Zhong
1988, (3): 412-420.
This paper presents the collecting methods of the deep-sea cosmic spherules and three major results analysed with various instruments, and especially indicates that iron spherule with golden Ni-Fe core and silicate spherule with golden Ni-Fe-S inclusion in deep-sea sediments are of significance for further understanding of the origin of the deep-sea spherules.
A new inverse filtering method of gravity field
Jin Xianglong, Gao Zhiqing
1988, (3): 421-434.
A new method for inversion of gravity field using the technique of inverse filtering is presented in this paper to calculate the structure of crust.
After inversing gravity data of West Pacific and Okinawa Trough, it has been proven that the method of inverse filtering has many advantages, such as high accuracy, fast convergence rate, small memory space used and arbitrary reduction of sampling interval. This new method is convenient to minicomputer for solving the inverse problem of crustal structure.
A force source of tectonic movement-A secondary mass center restoring force
Zhang Dachang
1988, (3): 435-441.
The earth system discussed in this paper is composed of two secondary particle systems:a water body and a base body. The base body shows different behaviours under the actions of long term and short term effects of its rheologic character and viscoelasticity. The short term effects result in a secondary particle system to deviate from its original position, and produce a secondary mass center restoring force directly proportional to the deviating distance. The long term effects result in the earth's material producing a secondary mass center restoring motion under the action of the secondary mass center restoring force.
Marine Biology and Fishery
Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao
Wu Baoling, Qian Peiyuan, Zhang Songling
1988, (3): 442-458.
Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of a Capitella complex in Qingdao were examined from 1983 to 1984. We determined that the Capitella complex in Qingdao was composed of at least three sibling species:Capitella cf capitata, Capitella sp. I and Capitella sp. Ⅱ. Although these three species are very similar in morphology, they differ in:three kinds of isoenzyme electrophoresis, staining reactions, developmental pattern, larval morphology and dispersal, reproductive strategies, breeding season and population ecology. In addition, they show a series of minor quantitative variations in adult morphology, especially in number and morphology of setae. Such differences can be detected only at the population level. Some ecological data such as density, growth rate, mortality and sex distribution are also provided in this paper.
Studies on ultrastructure of oocyte in process of maturing in pen shell
Fang Yongqiang, Qi Xiang
1988, (3): 459-472.
The present paper deals with the ultrastructural changes of oocyte in the process of maturing in pen shell Atrinapectinata Linne. When it develops from the antecedent growth period to the accelerating growth period the annulate lamellae emerge, the RER better develop, the yolk granules with single and double layer membrane and are visible. In the well-developed mitochondria there is yolk stored. The Golgi vacuoles are brewing yolk granules. At the mature period the annulate lamellae and the Golgi bodies disappear, and there are only a few RER and mitochondria with poor cristae in the cytoplasm. All these might be well used for judging the maturity of the ootids in the process of the artificial propagation.
The sediment types in the northeastern part of the South Cnina Sea—A discussion on regularity of the sedimentary types
1988, (3): 473-479.