2011 Vol. 30, No. 6

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Is the small-scale turbulence an exclusive breaking product of oceanic internal waves
FAN Zhisong
2011, (6): 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0155-y
On the basis of the theoretical research results by the author and the literature published up to date, the analysis and the justification presented in this paper show that the breaking products of oceanic internal waves are not only turbulence, but also the fine-scale near-inertial internal waves (the oceanic reversible finestructure) for inertial waves and the internal solitary waves for internal tides respectively. It was found that the oceanic reversible finestructure may be induced by the effect of the horizontal component f(f=2Ωcosφ) of the rotation vector on inertial waves. And a new instability of the theoretical shear and strain spectra due to the effect of f occurs at critical vertical wavenumber βc ≈0.1 cpm. It happens when the levels of shear and strain of the reversible finestructure are higher than those of inertial waves, which is induced by the effect of f along an "iso-potential-pycnal" of internal wave. If all breaking products of internal waves are taken into account, the average kinetic energy dissipation rate is an order of magnitude larger than the values of turbulence observed by microstructure measurements. The author's theoretical research results are basically in agreement with those observed in IWEX, DRIFTER and PATCHEX experiments. An important impersonal fact is that on the mean temporal scale of thermohaline circulation these breaking products of internal waves exist simultaneously with turbulence. Because inertial waves are generated by winds at the surface, and internal tides are generated by strong tide-topography interactions, the analysis and justification in this paper support in principle the abyssal recipes Ⅱ:energetics of tidal and wind mixing by Munk & Wunsch in 1998, in despite of the results of microstructure measurements for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and the diapycnal turbulent eddy diffusivity.
Sampling errors of the global mean sea level derived from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry
TAI Chang-Kou, WAGNER Carl
2011, (6): 12-18. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0156-x
Sampling errors of the global mean sea level derived from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry are explored using 3(1/4) a of eddy-resolving numerical model outputs for sea level. By definition, the sampling errors would not exist if data were available everywhere at all times. Four problems with increasing and progressively added complexities are examined to understand the causes of the sampling errors. The first problem (P1) explores the error incurred because T/P with turning latitudes near 66° latitudes does not cover the entire globe. The second problem (P2) examines, in addition, the spatial sampling issue because samples are only available along T/P ground tracks. The third problem (P3) adds the additional complexity that sea level at any along track location is sampled only once every 10 d versus every 3 d for the model (i.e., the temporal sampling issue). The fourth problem (P4) incorporates the full complexity with the addition of real T/P data outages. The numerical model (Los Alamos POP model Run 11) conserves the total water volume, thus generating no global mean sea level variation. Yet when the model sea level is sampled in the four problems (with P4 using the real T/P sampling), variations occur as manifestations of the sampling errors. The results show root-mean-squares (rms) sampling errors for P1 of 0.67 (0.75) mm for 10 d (3 d) global mean sea level, 0.78 (0.86) mm for P2, 0.79 mm for P3, and 1.07 mm for P4, whereas the amplitudes of the sampling errors can be as large as 2.0 (2.7) mm for P1, 2.1 (2.7) mm for P2, 2.2 mm for P3, and 2.5 mm for P4. The results clearly show the largest source of the sampling errors to be the lack of global coverage (i.e., P1), which the model has actually underestimated due to its own less-than-global coverage (between latitudes about 77° latitudes). We have extrapolated that a truly global model would show the rms sampling error to be 1.14 (1.28) mm for P1, thus implying a substantially larger sampling error for P4.
An efficient focusing model for generation of freak waves
LIU Zanqiang, ZHANG Ningchuan, YU Yuxiu
2011, (6): 19-26. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0157-9
Based on the Longuet-Higgins wave model theory, the previews studies have shown that freak waves can be generated in finite space and time successfully. However, as to generating high nonlinear freak waves, the simulation results will be unrealistic. Therefore, a modified phase modulation method for simulating high nonlinear freak waves was developed. The surface elevations of some wave components at certain time and place are positive by modulating the corresponding random initial phases, then the total surface elevation at the focused point is enhanced and furthermore a freak wave event is generated. The new method can not only make the freak wave occur at certain time and place, but also make the simulated wave surface time series satisfy statistical properties of the realistic sea state and keep identical with the target wave spectrum. This numerical approach is of good precision and high efficiency by the comparisons of the simulated freak waves and the recorded freak waves.
A primary study of the correlation between the net air-sea heat flux and the interannual variation of western North Pacific tropical cyclone track and intensity
WU Liang, WEN Zhiping, HUANG Ronghui
2011, (6): 27-35. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0158-8
A singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis is carried out to reveal the relationship between the interannual variation of track and intensity of the western North Pacific tropical cyclones (WNPTCs) in the tropical cyclone (TC) active season (July-November) and the global net airsea heat flux (Qnet) in the preceding season (April-June). For this purpose, a tropical cyclone track and intensity function (TIF) is defined by a combination of accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index and a cyclone track density function. The SVD analysis reveals that the first mode is responsible for the positive correlation between the upward heat flux in the tropical central Pacific and the increased activity of western North Pacific (WNP) TIF, the second mode for the positive correlation between the upward heat flux in the North Indian Ocean and the northeastward track shift of WNPTCs and the third mode for the negative correlation between the upward heat flux in mid-latitude central Pacific and the northwest displacement of the WNP TC-active center. This suggests that Qnet anomalies in some key regions have a substantial remote impact on the WNP TC activity.
Study on the analysis and distribution of dimethylsulfoxide in the Jiaozhou Bay
YANG Jie, YANG Guipeng, YANG Jian
2011, (6): 36-45. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0159-7
A chemoreduction-purge-and-trap gas chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of trace dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in seawater. In the analysis procedure, DMSO was first reduced to dimethylsufide (DMS) by sodium borohydride and then the produced DMS was analyzed using the purge-and-trap technique coupled with gas chromatographic separation and flame photometric detection. Under the optimum conditions, 97% DMSO was reduced in the standard solution samples with a standard deviation of 5% (n=5). The detection limit of DMSO was 2.7 pmol of sulfur, corresponding to a concentration of 0.75 nmol/L for a 40 ml sample. This method was applied to determine the dissolved DMSO (DMSOd) and particulate DMSO (DMSOp) concentrations in the surface seawater of the Jiaozhou Bay, and the results showed that the DMSOd and DMSOp concentrations varied from 16.8 to 921.1 nmol/L (mean:165.2 nmol/L) and from 8.0 to 162.4 nmol/L (mean:57.7 nmol/L), respectively. The high concentrations of DMSOp were generally found in productive regions. Consequently, a significant correlation was found between the concentrations of DMSOp and chlorophyll a, suggesting that phytoplankton biomass might play an important role in controlling the distribution of DMSOp in the bay. Moreover, in the study area, the concentrations of DMSOd were significantly correlated with the levels of DMS, implying that the production of DMSOd is mainly via photochemical and biological oxidation of DMS.
Effects of irradiance on pigment signatures of harmful algae during growth process
LIU Shuxia, YU Zhigang, YAO Peng, ZHENG Yan, LI Dong
2011, (6): 46-57. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0160-1
Three harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, Phaeocystis globosa, Thalassiosira rotula, and Prorocentrum donghaiense were isolated from the coast of China and cultured in batches at three light intensities (40, 70 and 150 μmol photons·m-2·s-1). The variation patterns of cell numbers and growth rates with light intensity during growth process were different among species. In P. globosa and T. rotula, maximum growth rates were found at 150 μmol photons·m-2·s-1 and ranged from 0.60 divisions per day in T. rotula, to 1.17 divisions per day in P. globosa. The highest growth rate of P. donghaiense, however, was found at 70 μmol photons·m-2·s-1 (0.36 divisions per day). In general, all the three HAB species showed adaptation to increasing light intensity by decreasing cellular concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a), but the variation patterns during the growth process were species-specific. The cellular concentrations of Chl a in P. donghaiense and T. rotula increased gradually with incubation time, but the opposite trend was found in P. globosa. Most of the pigment ratios and pigment indices of these three species were nearly constant during the growth process and showed small changes at different light intensities illustrating the applicability of chemotaxonomy during the initial and developing stages of HAB events, which is very important to study the ecological issues related to HAB species. Ratios of photoprotective carotenoids, such as diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β, β-carotene to total chlorophylls a (Tchl a) showed the trend of increasing with the increase of light intensity during growth process. The species-specific and pigment-specific variations in pigment ratios/indices at different light intensities during growth process probably reflected the differences in the pigment composition as well as the adaption capabilities of different species to the changes of physical conditions.
Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for weight and length in Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck et Schlegel)
TIAN Yongsheng, XU Tianjun, LIANG You, CHEN Songlin
2011, (6): 58-64. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0161-0
The complete diallel cross design was employed to estimate the genetic parameters of the growth of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A total of 60 full-sib families were cultivated and two growth-related traits, body weight (BW) and body length (BL), were examined at average 2, 3 and 8 months of age respectively, with 1 800 individuals measured in each age group (30 per family). Based on the additive-dominance-maternal-effect genetic analysis model, the restricted maximum likelihood approach was used to estimate various (co)variance components. The results showed that narrow-sense heritability estimates of BW and BL were respectively:0.29±0.01 and 0.22±0.02 at 2 months of age, 0.32±0.02 and 0.30±0.04 at 3 months of age, 0.48±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 at 8 months of age; broad-sense heritability estimates were respectively:0.44±0.02 and 0.54±0.04 at 2 months of age, 0.35±0.01 and 0.36±0.03 at 3 months of age, 0.49±0.03 and 0.45±0.04. All heritabilities were statistically significant (P <0.05). Additive genetic correlations between BW and BL at 2, 3 and 8 months of age were consistently positive and highly significant (P <0.01):0.93±0.02, 0.95±0.03 and 0.92±0.03 respectively. Maternal effect was significant (P <0.05) only at 2 months of age, and was not detected at 3 and 8 months of age. According to the heritability estimates, the mass selection strategy should be efficient for the breeding of Japanese flounder.
Effects of Aroclor 1254 on reproductive organ weight, sperm quality and testicular mitochondria oxidative stress of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris
HE Shanying, WU Qiuling, SUN Mengdie
2011, (6): 65-71. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0162-z
Boleophthalmus pectinirostris is an amphibious economic fish and wildly distributed in the southeast coast of China. In this study, Aroclor 1254 was intraperitoneally injected into B. pectinirostris with 1, 2 and 4 μg/(g·d) for 28 d to assay the reproductive organ weight, the sperm quality (sperm concentration and motility), and the testicular mitochondrial testicular mitochondria oxidative stress. The results show that the sperm number and motility in seminal vesicles, the absolute weight of testes and seminal vesicles of B. pectinirostris treated with 2 and 4 μg/(g·d) Aroclor 1254 decreased significantly as compared to the controls (p <0.05), while those treated with 1 μg/(g·d) Aroclor 1254 had no significant effects on these indictors. For the relative weight of reproductive organs, significant reduction (p <0.05) was only observed in the seminal vesicles of B. pectinirostris treated with 4 μg/(g·d). SOD activities and GSH levels in all the Aroclor 1254 treatments were significantly lower than those of the controls (p <0.05). The activities of CAT, GPx, GR and the levels of Vit C also decreased significantly in comparison with the controls (p <0.05) at the higher dose of 2 and 4 μg/(g·d) Aroclor 1254 treatments. In addition, both H2O2 level and MDA content in testicular mitochondria of B. pectinirostris had a close correlation with Aroclor 1254 dosage, and were significantly higher than the controls (p <0.05). Those indicate that Aroclor 1254 can induce the oxidative stress of testicular mitochondria, and impair the reproductive function of male B. pectinirostris.
Studies on ecological characteristics variation and population dynamics of four lizardfishes in the southern Taiwan Straits
DU Jianguo, LU Zhenbin, YANG Shengyun, CHEN Mingru
2011, (6): 72-81. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0163-y
The ecological characteristics of four lizardfishes, Trachinocephalus myops, Saurida undosquamis, Saurida tumbil and Saurida elongata, were studied from specimens (910 T. myops, 454 S. undosquamis, 686 S. tumbil and 744 S. elongata) collected monthly in the southern Taiwan Straits from April 2005 to March 2006. The population dynamics of the four lizardfishes was also discussed by the comparison with the previous studies. All being composed of 7 a classes; the dominant group of T. myops and S. tumbil was 1-2 a, while S. undosquamis and S. elongate were 2-3 a. The total mortality coefficient Z and the fishing mortality F were at high as indicated by the exploitation ratio E(>0.5), and a large number of by-caught juvenile and young fishes showing that the stock of lizardfishes in this area was overexploited and the fishing gear was irrational. Compared with the previous studies, the maximum and mean fork length, body mass and age of the four lizardfishes declined gradually, the lizardfishes populations were younger in age and smaller in size. The asymptotic fork length L decreased while increasing growth coefficient k, and age at the inflexion point of mass tr was younger compared with the previous studies. The declining of older ones has moderated the feeding competition and the younger ones grew faster. The larger mortality parameters Z, M and F have revealed higher fishing pressure. The smaller change of the first mature fork length of female T. myops and the change from K selection pattern to r selection pattern of S. tumbil have indicated a more vulnerable fishery ecosystem in this area. The changes of ecological characteristics and population dynamics may be caused by over-exploitation of demersal fishes such as the lizardfishes, especially a large number of juvenile and young fishes by-catch by the current fishing gears and methods. Therefore, in addition to the traditional fishery management approach such as the minimum length-limit, ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAF) should be taken to improve the practical marine ecosystem management, including increased fishing intensity of the non-economic species especially the feeding competitors of the lizardfishes and the conservation of the pelagic fishery population in the fisheries ecosystem, in order to restore the fishery population and achieve the sustainable use of the fishery stocks.
A new spceies of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae) from the northern China seas
YANG Jingwen, ZHANG Suping
2011, (6): 82-85. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0164-x
A new species, Nassarius (Zeuxis) humeratus n. sp. of Nassariidae was described based on the specimens collected in the Huanghai Sea (Yellow Sea) and Bohai Sea during the expedition from 1958 to 1959. The new species was distinguished from similar species Nassarius (Zeuxis) bolangoi (Ladd, 1976) and Nassarius (Varicinassa) variciferus (A. Adams, 1852) in shell characteristics. Some relative discussion was provided. The new species mainly distributes in the subtidal zone of 30-53 m depth, in muddy and sandy bottom in the Bohai Sea and northern Huanghai Sea.
Impacts of CO2-driven seawater acidification on survival, egg production rate and hatching success of four marine copepods
ZHANG Dajuan, LI Shaojing, WANG Guizhong, GUO Donghui
2011, (6): 86-94. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0165-9
Ecological experiments were conducted to examine the effects of seawater containing elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 800×10-6, 2 000×10-6, 5 000×10-6 and 10 000×10-6) on the survival and reproduction of female Acartia pacifica, Acartia spinicauda, Calanus sinicus and Centropages tenuiremis, which are the dominant copepods in the southern coastal waters of China. The results show that the effects of elevated pCO2 on the survival rates of copepods were speciesspecific. C. sinicus, which was a macro-copepod, had a higher survival rate (62.01%-71.96%) than the other three species (5.00%-26.67%) during the eight day exposure. The egg production rates of C. sinicus, A. spinicauda and C. tenuiremis were significantly inhibited by the increased pCO2 and the exposure time duration. There were significantly negative impacts on the egg hatching success of A. spinicauda and C. tenuiremis in the pCO2 2 000×10-6 and 10 000×10-6 groups, and, in addition, the exposure time had noticeably impacts on these rates too. This study indicates that the reproductive performances of copepods were sensitive to elevated pCO2, and that the response of different copepod species to acidified seawater was different. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of seawater acidification and climate change or other pollutant stresses on organisms should be given more attention.
Characterization of a thermostable manganese-containing superoxide dismutase from inshore hot spring thermophile Thermus sp. JM1
ZHU Yanbing, LI Hebin, ZHANG Xuqin, ZHANG Chunyan, XIANG Jionghua, LIU Guangming
2011, (6): 95-103. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0166-8
A thermostable superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the inshore thermophile Thermus sp. JM1 was purified to homogeneity by steps of fractional ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose chromatography and Phenyl-Sepharose chromatography. The specific activity of the purified native enzyme was 1 656 U/mg. A sod gene from this strain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The prepared apo-enzyme of the purified recombinant SOD (rSOD) was reconstituted with either Fe or Mn by means of incubation with appropriate metal salts. As a result, only Mn2+-reconstituted rSOD (Mn-rSOD) exhibited the specific activity of 1 598 U/mg. SOD from Thermus sp. JM1 was Mn-SOD, judging by the specific activities analysis of Fe or Mn reconstituted rSODs and the insensitivity of the native SOD to both cyanide and H2O2. Both the native SOD and MnrSOD were determined to be homotetramers with monomeric molecular mass of 26 kDa and 27.5 kDa, respectively. They had high thermostability at 50℃ and 60℃, and showed striking stability across a wide pH span from 4.0 to 11.0.
Phylogenetic diversity of Type I polyketide synthase genes from sediments of Ardley Island in Antarctica
ZHAO Jing, YANG Ning, CHEN Xinglin, JIANG Qingru, ZENG Runying
2011, (6): 104-111. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0167-7
The diversity of modular polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in sediments of Ardley Island in Antarctica, was studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 amino acid (AA) sequences indicates that the identified ketosynthase (KS) domains were clustered with those from diverse bacterial groups, including Cyanobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and some unidentified microorganisms from marine sponge, bryozoan and other environmental samples. The obtained KS domains showed 43%-81% similarity at the AA level to reference sequences in GenBank. Six identified KS domains showed diverse sequences of the motif (VQTACSTS) that was used to identify the hybrid PKS/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) enzyme complex, and formed a new branch. These results reveal a high diversity and novelty of PKS genes in antarctic sediments.
First observation of Karlodinium veneficum from the East China Sea and the coastal waters of Germany
WANG Hongxia, LU Douding, HUANG Haiyan, GÖBEL Jeanette, DAI Xinfeng, XIA Ping
2011, (6): 112-121. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0168-6
Harmful algal blooms often occurred in the East China Sea (ECS) and the German coastal waters of the North Sea but Karlodinium veneficum had not been taxonomically reported. Two strains of Karlodinium (LAMB090611 and LAMB010601) were isolated from the two areas in 2009. The morphological characteristics and molecular phylogeny of two strains are compared on the basis of observation of a light microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a laser scanning microscope (LSM) and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. The mean cell length of strain LAMB090611 is (14.2±1.8) μm (range 11.1-18.7 μm) and mean width is (10.8±1.5) μm (range 8.2-14.7 μm). The mean cell length of strain LAMB010601 is (15.1±1.2) μm (range 12.7-17.9 μm) and the mean width is (11.4±1.1) μm (range 9.1-14.7 μm), respectively. The two strains are similar in morphological characteristics, including a straight apical groove, distinct ventral pore, sulcal extension, cingulum displacement, two or four irregular shaped chloroplasts within the cell and almost equal sized epicone and hypocone. The large and round nucleus is located at the center or at the hypocone of the cell. The sequence length of the ECS strain LAMB090611 and the German strain LAMB010601 is 640 and 646 bp, respectively. The GC content is 49%. The nucleotide similarity of the two strains is 98.1%. The sequence divergence is 0.003. Both strains are confirmed as Karlodinium veneficum (D. Ballantine) J. Larsen and this is the first taxonomic report from China and Germany coastal waters. The population dynamics of this toxic species in the ECS and German coastal waters needs to be investigated in the near future.
Research Notes
Effect of regional warming on the abundance of Pseudeuphausia sinica Wang et Chen (Euphausiacea) off the Changjiang River (Yangtze River) Estuary
GAO Qian, XU Zhaoli
2011, (6): 122-128. doi: 10.1007/s13131-011-0169-5
Distribution and abundance of Pseudeuphausia sinica off the Changjiang River Estuary (30°00'-32°00'N, 122°00'-123°30'E), the East China Sea were studied in relation to environmental features associated with the regional warming. P. sinica is a subtropical species. Off the Changjiang River Estuary, its abundance reached maximum in summer. To examine spatial and temporal changes of P. sinica off the Changjiang River Estuary, the authors have combined all available sampling data in 1979, 1981, and 2000-2007. This database shows that a significant increase in abundances of P. sinica was observed in spring of 2000-2007 as compared with 1979, 1981. The abundance of P. sinica increased from 0.18-0.21 ind./m3 in 1979 and 1981 to 0.68-4.00 ind./m3 in 2000-2007. Accordingly, the sea temperature increased obviously from spring of 1979, 1981 to the 2000s. The authors further found a positive relationship between average surface temperature and average abundance of P. sinica. Regional warming, together with the release of predator induced stress due to a sharp decline in the abundance of its predator (e.g., fishes), were thought to be responsible for the increase in abundance of P. sinica in water off the Changjiang River Estuary.